15-Title: Gross and biometrical studies on humerus of chital (Axis axis)
Authors: OP Choudhary, R Mathur, S Joshi, G Beniwal and A Dangi
Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):161-164.
How to cite this manuscript: Choudhary OP, Mathur R, Joshi S, Beniwal G and Dangi A (2012). Gross and biometrical studies on humerus of chital (Axis axis). Ruminant Science 1(2):161-164.
The present study has been done on the humerus of chital. In humerus the musculo-spiral groove was shallow. The deltoid tuberosity was less prominent. The head was roughly rounded and the neck was well-defined. The lateral tuberosity was large and curved over the bicipital groove. The medial tuberosity was much smaller and did not divide noticeably. The coronoid fossa and olecranon fossae communicated by a small supra-trochlear foramen in some specimens. The average greatest length of the humerus of Chital was 19.86±0.04 cm. The average maximum breadth of proximal extremity, shaft and distal extremity was 5.39±0.02 cm, 3.48±0.03 cm and 3.65±0.03 cm, respectively. The maximum breadth of head was 3.79±0.03 cm.
Akers RM and Denbow M (2008). Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals. Blackwell Publishing pp152-156.
Banerji J (1955). Wild animals in the Andaman Islands. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 55:256.
Bradley OC (1896). Outlines of Veterinary Anatomy, Part I- The Anterior and Posterior Limb. Eds William R Jenkins, Veterinary Publisher and Bookseller, New York pp 83-86.
Budras KD and Robert E (2003). Bovine Anatomy: An Illustrated Text. 1st Edn, Schlutersche. pp 2-3.
Chauveau A (1905). The Comparative Anatomy of the Domesticated Animals. Eds George Fleming, 2nd Edn, D Appleton and Company, New York. pp 98-119.
Duckworth JW, Kumar NS, Anwarul Islam Md, Hem Sagar Baral and Timmins RJ (2008). Axis axis. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
Getty R (1975). Sisson and Grossman’s The Anatomy of the Domestic Animals. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia pp 273-296
Groves CP (1969). On the Smaller Gazelles of Genus Gazelle (de Blainville, 1816). Z Saugetierk 34(1):38-60.
Haziroglu RM and Ozer M (1990). A supratrochlear foramen in the humerus of cattle. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 19(2):106-108.
Ikic M, Salajpal K, Karolyi D, Ikic D, Pavic M and Juric I (2007). Characteristics of femur and humerus in Turopolje pig-an autochthonous Croatian breed. Sveuèilište Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku 13(1):172-175.
Kalita A and Bhattacharyya R (2008). Comparative anatomy on the appendicular skeleton of the domestic cat and local dog of Mizoram. Compendium National Symposium and XII Annual Convention of Indian Association of Veterinary Anatomists, p 8.
Konig HE and Liebich HG (2006). Veterinary Anatomy of Domestic Animals. 3rd Edn, Schattauer, Stuttgart Germany, pp 49-104, 145-164.
McFadyean (1953). Osteology and Arthrology of Domestic Animals. Eds HV Hughes and JW Dransfield, 4th Edn, London Bailliere, Tindall and Cox pp 130-172.
Miller ME, Christensen GC and Evans HE (1964). Anatomy of the Dog. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, USA pp 64-78.
Owen R (1866). On the Anatomy of Vertebrates. Part II: Birds and Mammals. Longmans, Green and Company, London, pp 482-484.
Özkan ZE (2004). Macro-Anatomical Investigations on the Hedgehog Skeleton (Erinaceus europaeus) I- Ossa Membri Thoracici. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science 28:271-274.
Raghavan D (1964). Anatomy of Ox. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp 97-117.
Sankar K and Acharya B (2004). Chital. ENVIS Bulletin (Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun) 7:171-180.
Sarma K, Kalita SN and Kumar P (2008). Anatomy of the humerus of Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamalus). Indian Journal of Animal Science 78(1):24-27.
Sarma M and Kalita SN (2008). Passive locomotor system of the arm of adult Asian elephant: A gross study. Compendium National Symposium and XII Annual Convention of Indian Association of Veterinary Anatomists, p 58.
Siddiqui MSI, Khan MZI, Sarma M, Islam MN and Jahan MR (2008). Macro-anatomy of the bones of the forelimb of Black Bengal Goat (Capra hircus): Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 6(1):59-66.
Sisson S (1911). A Text Book of Veterinary Anatomy. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London pp 127-131.
Smuts M and Bezuidenhout AJ (1987). Anatomy of the Dromedary. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK pp 24-34.
Talukdar M, Kalita A and Baishya G (2002). Gross anatomical study on the humerus of Mithun. Indian Veterinary Journal 79(6):585-587.