14-Title: Successful therapeutic management of onion toxicosis induced hemolytic anaemia in bovine
Authors: AU Bhikane, KS Kedar, RK Jadhav, SG Chavhan and YM Wankhede
Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(2):209-212
How to cite this manuscript: Bhikane AU, Kedar KS, Jadhav RK, Chavhan SG and Wankhede YM (2019). Successful therapeutic management of onion toxicosis induced hemolytic anaemia in bovine. Ruminant Science 8(2):209-212.
Onion (Allium cepa) poisoning is an acute afebrile condition observed in farm animals due to the accidental ingestion of a large number of onions and clinically characterized by haemoglobinemia, haemoglobinuria and anaemia. Three cases of bovine including two bulls and one buffalo were presented with a history of the feeding of onions for three days. Clinical examination revealed passage of coffee-coloured urine, dullness, inappetence, suspended rumination, pallor of mucosae, straining during defaecation, scanty faeces, subnormal body temperature, increased heart rate and respiration. Haemato-biochemical analysis showed a severe decrease in Hb, TEC and PCV values with marginally elevated serum total bilirubin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine. Blood smear examination showed the absence of haemoprotozoan infections and the presence of numerous Heinz bodies. The cases were confirmed for onion toxicosis based on history, clinical signs and haemato-biochemical analysis and successfully treated with Vitamin E & Se @ 10 ml SC for 5 days, Dextrose 20% @ 500 ml slow IV BID for 5 days, B complex @ 7.5 ml IM SID for 10 days and haematinic bolus @ 1 PO BID for 20 days. Gradual improvement in treated animals was observed over a period of 5 days with the disappearance of haemoglobinuria, resumption of feed intake, rumination and absence of straining during defaecation.
Aslani MR, Mohri M and Movassaghi AR (2005). Heinz body anaemia associated with onion (Allium cepa) toxicosis in a flock of sheep. Comparative Clinical Pathology 14:118-120.
Bhikane AU, Ghadage HR and Hase PB (2011). Treatment of onion poisoning in bullocks. Indian Veterinary Journal 88:61-62.
Borelli V, Lucioli J, Furlan FH, Hoepers PG, Roveda JF, Traverso SD and Gava A (2009). Fatal onion (Allium cepa) toxicosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigations 21:402-405.
Chakrabarti A and Basak DN (1994). Onion poisoning in a heifer-A case report. Livestock Adviser 9:36.
El-Sayyed YS, El-Okle OSM, Hassan SMH and Bakir NMA (2015). Poisoning of cattle feeding on Allium ampeloprasu (Egyptian Kurrat). Journal of Veterinary Science and Medical Diagnosis 4:2-4.
Hutchison TWS (1977). Onions as a cause of Heinz body anaemia and death in cattle. Canadian Veterinary Journal 8:358-360.
Kasai E (1996). Mechanism of oxidative damage and species difference in erythrocytes oxidized by sodium N-propylthiosulfate, a causative agent of onion induced hemolytic anaemia. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 44(1):37.
Lazarus AE and Rajamani S (1968). Poisoning due to onion spoilage in cattle. Indian Veterinary Journal 45(10):877-880.
Munday R and Manns E (1994). Comparative toxicity of propenyl disulfides derived from Alliaceae: Possible involvement of 1-propenyl-disulfides in onion-induced hemolytic anaemia. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42:59-62.
Ogawa E, Akahori F and Kobayashi K (1985). In vitro studies on the breakdown of canine erythrocytes exposed to the onion extract. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi 47:719-729.
Patil NA, Satbige A, Ingale YS, Halmandge S and Kasaralikar VR (2019). Onion toxicosis in buffaloes. Buffalo Bulletin 3(2):389-391.
Radostits OM, Gay CC, Blood DC and Hinchcliff KW (2010). Veterinary Medicine. 10thEdn, pp 451, 1881-1882.
Rae HA (1999). Onion poisoning in a herd of beef cattle. Canadian Veterinary Journal 40:55- 57.
Rifkind R and Danon D (1965). Heinz body anaemia-an ultrastructural study: I. Heinz body formation. Blood 25:885-896
Salgado BS, Monteiro LN and Rocha NS (2011). Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxin Including Tropical Diseases 17:4-11.
Van Der Kolk JH (2000). Onion poisoning in a herd of dairy cattle. Veterinary Record 28:517-518.
Yamato O, Hayashi M, Kasai E, Tajima M, Yamasaki M and Maede Y (1999). Reduced glutathione accelerates the oxidative damage produced by sodium n-propylthiosulfate, one of the causative agents of onion-induced hemolytic anaemia in dogs. Biochim Biophys Acta 1427(2):175-182.