Challenges in control of trypanosomosis in ruminants: Alarming bells on drug resistance

2.Title: Challenges in control of trypanosomosis in ruminants: Alarming bells on drug resistance

Authors: Rahul Parashar and LD Singla

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(2):153-162.

How to cite this manuscript: Parashar Rahul and Singla LD (2019). Challenges in control of trypanosomosis in ruminants: Alarming bells on drug resistance. Ruminant Science 8(2):153-162.

Abstract

Trypanosomosis (Surra) caused by, Trypanosoma evansi (unicellular, eukaryotic, haemo-flagellate), is the most widely distributed, mechanically transmitted vector borne disease of domestic livestock and wild animals in India. Biting flies of the families, Tabanidae and Muscidae are implicated as the principal vector of the parasite. The major clinical signs of T. evansi infection are high intermittent fever, anaemia, loss of appetite and weight, loss of condition and productivity, nervous signs, abortion, cachexia, and death. Different diagnostic methods from classical to advance molecular techniques are having merits as well as intrinsic limitations in diagnosis. Ten atypical cases of human trypanosomosis have so far been reported from the Indian subcontinent. Two casualties due to non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis (NTTT) were also reported from India creating an alarming situation of emerging new zoonotic disease and debatable one health issue to public health experts and parasitologist. Various drugs have been tried by previous researchers from time to time including homidium, diminazine aceturate, quinapyramine sulphate, suramin, melarsomine dihydrochloride and isometamidium chloride against trypanosomosis. Due to limited availability of the drugs and reports on treatment failures, there is a need for judicious use of drugs in combination with managemental practice along with vector control so as to reduce the chances of drug resistance. Constant and proper monitoring is necessary to distinguish treatment failure from the appearance of true resistance. Different aspects of trypanosomosis viz. causative agent, advancement in diagnosis, social impact on human health, treatment, prevention, control measures with special emphasis on the emerging problem of drug resistance is addressed in this review which will help scientist and veterinarian to understand and correlate this multiple component disease entity.

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