Title: Antioxidants as an adjunct therapy in clinical management of babesiosis in cattle: A novel approach
Authors: RM Shinde, AU Bhikane, BW Naraladkar and PS Masare
Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):93-100
Cite this reference as: Shinde RM, Bhikane AU, Naraladkar BW and Masare PS (2019). Antioxidants as an adjunct therapy in clinical management of babesiosis in cattle: A novel approach. Ruminant Science 8(1):93-100.
Babesiosis is an economically important and commonly encountered haemoprotozoan disease of cattle in India. Out of 1205 clinical cases of cattle, 24 animals were found clinically positive for babesiosis, indicating an overall hospital prevalence of 1.99 per cent. The disease was found to be more prevalent in male indigenous cattle above four years of age during summer. The babesiosis affected cattle exhibited anorexia, weakness, haemoglobinuria, anaemia, jaundice, rise in body temperature (102.8±0.41oF), tachycardia (84.16±2.94/min) and rapid respiration (29.95±1.97per min). Haematologically significant decrease in haemoglobin (6.71±0.57 g/dl), packed cell volume (20.37±1.45%) and total erythrocyte count (4.64±0.41× 106/µl) with a non-significant decrease in total leucocyte count and platelet count was noticed. On serum biochemical analysis, serum total (3.35±0.32 mg/dl), direct (1.27±0.16 mg/dl) and indirect (1.98±0.06 mg/dl) bilirubin, serum urea nitrogen (30.98±1.03 mg/dl) and serum creatinine (1.47±0.04 mg/dl)) values were found significantly higher in affected animals as compared to healthy cattle. Urine analysis revealed significantly decreased pH (7.47±0.24) and increased specific gravity (1.02±0.02) with bilirubinuria. Post-mortem examination showed pale-icteric carcass, hepatomegaly, distended gall bladder, splenomegaly, blackish kidneys and coffee coloured urine in the bladder. Therapeutic trials were conducted on 24 clinical cases of babesiosis in cattle divided into 2 treatment groups Viz. Group A (Diminazene diaceturate alone) and Group B (Diminazene diaceturate and Vit. E plus Selenium) comprising 12 animals each. The overall recovery rate was the same in both treatment groups (91.67%), but the recovery was faster in diminazene diaceturate with Vit. E and selenium treated group (2.33±0.54 days) as compared to those treated with diminazene diaceturate alone (3.16±0.57 days). Thus it is concluded that the Vit E plus selenium therapy can be used as an adjunct therapy for the management of oxidative stress induced intravascular haemolysis in babesiosis in cattle.
Agrawal R, Singh R, Mahesh Kumar and Upadhyay AK (2003) Epidemiological features of bovine trypanosomiosis and babesiosis in Durg district of Chhattisgarh State. Indian Veterinary Journal 80:314-317.
Ali MK, Pramanik AK and Guha C (1995). Babesiosis in calves and its treatment. Indian Veterinary Journal 72:1291-1293.
Aulakh GS, Singla LD, Kaur P and Alka Alka (2005). Bovine babesiosis due to Babesia bigemina; Haemato-biochemical and therapeutic studies. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 75:617-622.
Azeemi TA, Zameer M and Rahman G (2013). Incidences of theileria and babesia in nangrahar province of Afghanistan. Ruminant Science 2(2):145-147.
Bhardwaj RK, Soodan JS and Singh R (2010) Subacute babesiosis in a 14 days old cow-calf. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 29(2):147-148.
Bhikane AU, Naraladkar BW, Anantwar LG and Bhokare AP (2001) Epidemiology, clinico-pathology and treatment of babesiosis in cattle. Indian Veterinary Journal 78:726-729.
Kumar Bipin, Verma SP, Bidyashankar S and Sudhanshu Shekhar (2006) Epidemiological aspects of bovine babesiosis in Bihar. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 26(2):141-142.
Kumar Bipin, Verma SP, Bidyashankar S and Das AK (2010). Haemato-biochemical changes in bovine babesiosis. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 30(1):29-30.
Bock R, Jackson L, de Vos A and Jorgensen W (2004) Babesiosis of cattle. Parasitology 129:247-69.
Chakrabarti A (2003). A Textbook of Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 3rd Edn, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. Pp 683-687.
De Castro JJ (1997). Sustainable tick and tick borne disease control in livestock improvement in developing countries. Veterinary Parasitology 71: 77-97.
De Vico G, Macri B, Sammartino C and Loria GR (1999) Bovine babesiosis in Sicily: Preliminary study on pathology. Parassitologia 41(1):37-38.
Dwivedi SK, Sharma SP and Gautam OP (1976). Babesiosis: Clinical cases in exotic and crossbred cattle. Indian Veterinary Journal 53:469-472.
Elissalde GS, Wagner GG and Criag TM (1983). Hypocholesterolemia and hypocortisolemia in acute and terminal Babesia bovis infection. Veterinary Parasitology 12:1-11.
Esmaeilnejad B, Tavassoli M, Asri-Rezaei S and Dalir-Naghadeh B (2012). Evaluation of antioxidant status and oxidative stress in sheep naturally infected with Babesia ovis. Veterinary Parasitology 185(2-4):124-130.
Kamran CA and Setty DR L (1995) Changes in leucocyte count in Babesia bigemina infected cattle. Indian Veterinary Journal 72:1106-1108.
McCosker PJ (1981). The global importance of babesiosis. Academic Press. New York. 1- 20.
Pandey NN and Mishra SS (1977) Studies on the haematological changes and blood glucose level in Babesia bigemina infection in indigenous cow calves. Indian Veterinary Journal 54(5):880-883.
Pandey NN and Misra SK (1987) Haematological and biochemical response to haemolytic anaemia of clinical babesiosis in cattle and therapy. Indian Veterinary Journal 64:882-886.
Parmar AB, Panchasara HH, Patel KB, Chauhan HC and Chandel BS (2018). Molecular detection of Babesia bigemina from blood of dairy cattle. Ruminant Science 7(2):287-288.
Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchclif, KW and Constable PD (2010). Veterinary Medicine – A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs and Goat. 10th Edn. Saunder Elsevier, Philadelphia. USA, p 383
Ruprah NS (1985). Text Book of Clinical Protozoology. Oxanian Press Pvt Ltd. New Delhi. pp 287-304.
Schoeman JP (2009). Canine babesiosis. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 76:59-66
Sharma AK, Katoch RC, Nagal KB, Kishtwaria RS and Sharma SK (2000). Bovine babesiosis in Palam Valley of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Veterinary Journal 77:731-732.
Shastri UV (1988). Some observations on cerebral babesiosis in crossbred calves in Marathwada region (Maharashtra State). Indian Veterinary Journal 65:107-109.
Snedecor GW and Cochran WG (2014). Statistical Methods. Iowa State University Press, Ames, 8th Ed, USA.
Soulsby EJL (1982). Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th Edn, Bailliere Tindall and Cassel Ltd, London. pp 707-715.
Uilenberg G (2006). Babesiosis-A historical overview. Veterinary Parasitology 138: 3-10.
Vahora SP, Patel JV, Patel BB, Patel SB and Umale RH (2012) Seasonal incidence of haemoprotozoal diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo in Kaira and Anand districts of Gujarat. India. Veterinary World 5(4):223-225.
Wadhwa DR, Pal B and Mandial RK (2008). Epidemiological and clinico -therapeutic management of babesiosis in cattle. Indian Journal of Veterinary Research 17(2):22-24.
Wright IG and Goodger BN (1973) Z. Parazitnek 42: 213 (Cited by Chakrabarti, 2003).
Yeruham I, Hadani A and Galker F (1998). Some epizootiological and clinical aspects of ovine babesiosis caused by Babesia ovis-A review. Veterinary Parasitology 74:153-163.
Zuckerman A (1964). Anti immunization and other types of indirect damage to host cells as a factor in certain protozoan disease. Experimental Parasitology 15:138-183.