7-Title: Gastrointestinal helminths of goats in a subtropical and high humid zone of Sikkim, India

Authors: Papri Pal, LR Chatlod, RK Avasthe and A Prasad

Source: Ruminant Science (2013)-2(2):149-153.

How to cite this manuscript: Pal Papri,  Chatlod LR, Avasthe RK and Prasad A  (2013). Gastrointestinal helminths of goats in a subtropical and high humid zone of Sikkim, India. Ruminant Science 2(2):149-153.


Gastrointestinal (GI) helminths spectrum of 623 goats from subtropical and high humid zones of Sikkim, India were examined over a period of two years. GI-helminth recorded were Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Trichostrongylus colubriformes, Nematodirus filicolis, Trichuris ovis, T. globulosa, Moniezia expansa and amphistome species. The overall infection rate was 64.69%. Among the various species found H. contortus (64.53%) emerged as the most prevalent although O. columbianum (43.34%) and B. trigonocephalum (35.31%) were also significantly in evidence. The seasonal fluctuation in infection was assessed by monitoring the faecal egg count of 623 goats slaughtered during the two year period. The highest intensity of parasitic infection was recorded in autumn season and remained at a relatively high level from August to October followed by summer season and the least during winter.  The role of environmental factors in their prevalence is discussed.   


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6-Title: Incidences of theileria and babesia in Nangrahar province of Afghanistan

Authors: Tawheed Ali Azeemi, Mohammad Zameer and Gul Rahman

Source: Ruminant Science (2013)-2(2):145-147.

How to cite this manuscript: Azeemi TA, Zameer M and Rahman  G (2013). Incidences of theileria and babesia in Nangrahar province of Afghanistan. Ruminant Science 2(2):145-147.


Present study was conduct to find out the incidence of theileria and babesia in Nangrahar province. Blood smear examinations of 450 infected animals from 7 districts were studied to find out the incidence these diseases. The higher percentage of infected animals were recorded in Bihsood (31.97%), Jalalabad (26.34%) and Sur-raod (16.37%) districts while Kuz-Kunar, Rodat, Chaprehar and Kama had 11.76%, 9.33%, 8.95%, 7.78%, respectively. Total 70% of the animals were infected by theileria followed by 22.44% of babesia and 6.8% by mixed infection. Cattle were found to be highly infected by theileria (46.89%), babesia (8.89%) and mixed infection (4.89%). The infection rate of calves was theileria (15.33%), babesia (8.67%) and mixed infection (1.1%). Sheep had lowest number infection compare to cattle and calf i.e theileria (8.44%), babesia (4.89%) and mixed infection (0.89%).


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5-Title: Antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis in Goa

Authors: Abhay Raorane, Shubhadha Chothe, ZB Dubal, SB Barbuddhe, M Karunakaran, Swapnil Doijad, Ajay Pathak, Krupali Poharkar and NP Singh

Source: Ruminant Science (2013)-2(2):139-144.

How to cite this manuscript: Raorane Abhay, Chothe Shubhadha, Dubal ZB, Barbuddhe SB, Karunakaran M, Doijad Swapnil, Pathak Ajay, Poharkar Krupali and Singh NP (2013). Antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis in Goa. Ruminant Science 2(2):139-144.


Isolation and identification of pathogens associated with mastitis cases is of at most importance when it comes to the prevention and treatment aspects. Area specific antibiogram for specific mastitis pathogen will help to find out appropriate type of antimicrobial which will ultimately reduced the resistance of different antimicrobials. In the present study, 158 milk samples from six different dairy farms of Goa were collected aseptically and processed for isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens. Sixty seven samples were positive by California Mastitis Test excluding 12 samples from clinical cases of mastitis. A total of 51 isolates were recovered from CMT positive and clinical mastitis samples. Staphylococcus aureus (28.35%), coagulase negative Staphylococci (29.85%), Streptococcus spp. (10.44%) and E. coli (7.46%) were isolated from these samples. Antibiotic sensitivity tests by disc diffusion assay of Staphylococcus aureus (n=19) showed 100% susceptibility towards Chloramphenicol and Vancomycin. Out of 19 strains, 12 strains were found to have resistance towards maximum numbers of antimicrobials. Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) showed moreover similar pattern with 100% sensitivity to chloramphenicol. Similarly, in case of Sterptococcus spp., all the isolates were sensitive to vancomycin while, 71.42% isolates were resistant to streptomycin and trimethoprim. E. coli isolates were completely resistance to ampicillin, vancomycin, carbanicillin and streptomycin. However, these strains were susceptible to trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. Resistance towards antibiotics was observed in the order as, Carbanicilin>Ampicillin/Cloxacillin> Cephalexin >Ciprofloxacin.


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4-Title: Molecular detection of bovine rotavirus from north Gujarat, India

Authors: AI Dadawala, BS Chandel, HC Chauhan and AG Bhagat

Source: Ruminant Science (2013)-2(2):131-137.

How to cite this manuscript: AI Dadawala, BS Chandel, HC Chauhan and AG Bhagat (2013). Molecular detection of bovine rotavirus from north Gujarat, India. Ruminant Science 2(2):131-137.


Seventy six faecal samples were collected from diarrhoeic bovine calves up to 4 weeks of age to find out the prevalence of rotavirus associated with neonatal calf diarrhoea. All 76 samples were processed for detection of rotavirus antigen by LAT and rotavirus genome by AGE and RT-PCR. All 76 faecal samples were processed for detection of rotavirus antigens by using latex agglutination test, while agar gel electrophoresis and RT-PCR was employed for the detection of rotavirus genome. Of these, 14 (18.42%), 6(7.89%) and 6(7.89%) were found positive in LAT, AGE and RT-PCR, respectively.


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3-Title: Clinico-pathology of sheep pox disease in Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: Rinku Sharma, RD Patil, HA Parimoo, D Thakur and VC Katoch

Source: Ruminant Science (2013)-2(2):127-130.

How to cite this manuscript: Sharma Rinku, Patil RD, Parimoo HA, Thakur D and Katoch VC (2013). Clinico-pathology of sheep pox disease in Himachal Pradesh, India. Ruminant Science 2(2):127-130.


This communication presents the clinico-epidemiological observations and detailed gross and histopathology of sheep pox disease outbreak in Himachal Pradesh state of India. Grossly, multisystemic nodular lesions, mucopurulent nasal discharges and respiratory distress were observed in the affected animals. Specific histopathological features like hyperplasia of epithelial cells, hydropic degeneration and sheep pox cells with presence of intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies around blood vessels in dermis of skin were observed. The disease was confirmed on the basis of characteristic gross pathology and pathognomonic histopathological lesions. Sheep pox is an emerging viral disease in the region and efforts need to be diverted towards its control, thereby preventing economic losses to the farmers.


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2-Title: Experimental study to control the abscess disease in Najdi sheep at Qassim region of Saudi Arabia

Authors: KB Al-Harbi, MA Al-Dubaib and OM Mahmoud

Source: Ruminant Science (2013)-2(2):123-126.

How to cite this manuscript: Al-Harbi KB, Al-Dubaib MA and Mahmoud OM (2013). Experimental study to control the abscess disease in Najdi sheep at Qassim region of Saudi Arabia.  Ruminant Science 2(2):123-126.


A program for controlling the abscess disease of sheep, based on vaccination, zinc injection and antiseptic washing, was implemented on a sheep flock comprising 50 Najdi ewes (2-3 years) and 3 breeding rams. The animals in the flock were vaccinated with a bacterin (GlanvacTM) and washed with Dettol antiseptic at its standard dilution (1/125) every 6 months. They were also injected subcutaneously with 5 mg/kg bodyweight zinc as zinc oxide suspended in olive oil, once annually. The ewes in the main flock were allowed to breed freely and the born F1 generation of lambs (n=20) joined the control program at the age of 3-4 months. The ewes and the lambs were monitored for abscess development and for general health for two years. In the first year, two vaccinated ewes developed abscesses on the head with incidence of 3.8% (2/53). Two non-vaccinated lambs developed abscesses at the age of 3 months before joining the control program. The program was continued on the parent stock ewes and their F1 generation lambs for a second year. The incidence of abscesses was 0% for both dams and lambs in the second year.  The F1 generation reached maturity and was bred to produce F2 generation of lambs (n=8) that also joined the control grogram at the age of 3-4 months. The F2 generation of lambs remained free of abscesses until the age of 5 months, the time when the experiment time expired. The results show that the program is highly effective in the control of sheep abscess disease as from the second year of its implementation.


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