Age related histomorphological studies on the hemal nodes of Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
Title: Age related histomorphological studies on the hemal nodes of Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
Authors: Jaideep Kaur, Opinder Singh and Devendra Pathak
Source: Ruminant Science (2018)-7(1):55-58.
Cite this reference as: Kaur Jaideep, Singh Opinder and Pathak Devendra (2018). Age related histomorphological studies on the hemal nodes of Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Ruminant Science 7(1):55-58.
The present study was conducted on 12 buffaloes (6 calves and 6 adult) to elucidate the histomorphological features of hemal nodes. Histomorphological observations revealed that the hemal nodes were surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue. There was progressive increase in thickness of capsule with age. Few connective tissue trabeculae extended from the capsule into the parenchyma. Beneath the capsule, a wide subcapsular sinus was present which was filled with erythrocytes and few lymphocytes were also observed. Connective tissue trabeculae from the capsule surrounded the trabecular sinuses which remain filled with erythrocytes and were lined by endothelial cells. The parenchyma of hemal node was divided into outer cortex, paracortex and medulla. Lymphoid aggregates were observed in the cortex regions which were irregularly arranged in calves and in follicular form in adult buffaloes. Diffused lymphocytes were observed in paracortex region. Germinal centers were observed in majority of lymphoid follicles. Medulla consisted of medullary sinuses filled with erythrocytes and irregularly arranged lymphatic cords. The histomorphology of hemal nodes changed with increase in age and involutory changes were observed at six years of age.
Cerutti P, Marcaccini A and Guerrero F (1998). A scanning and immune histochemical study in bovine haemal node. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 27:387-392.
Cerutti P and Guerrero F (2001). Identification of positive cells to interleukin-4 in bovine haemal nodes. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 30:219-223.
Constantinescu GM, Brown EM and McClure RC (1988). Accessory parotid lymph nodes and hemal nodes in the temporal fossa in three oxen. Cornell Veterinarian 78:147-154.
Ezeasor DM and Singh A (1988). Histology of the caprine hemal node. Acta Anatomica 133:16-23.
Luna LG (1968). Manual of Histologic Staining: Methods of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. 3rd Edn, McGraw Hill Book Co, New York.
Sheehan DC and Hrapchak BB (1973). Theory and Practice of Histochemistry. CV Mosby Co, Saint Louis. pp 80-172.
Thorp BH, Seneque S, Staute K and Kimpton WG (1991). Characterization and distribution of lymphocyte subsets in sheep hemal nodes. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 15:393-400.
Udoumoh AF, Ezeasor DN and Igwebuike UM (2016). Distribution of porcine haemal nodes and morphological variations in the haemal nodes of cattle and west African dwarf goats. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 8(4):422-427.
Zhang W, Nasu T, Hosaka YZ and Yasuda M (2012). Comparative studies on the distribution and population of immunocompetent cells in bovine hemalnode, lymph node and spleen. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Science 74:405-411.
Zidan M, Zaghloul DM, Derbalah AE and Elghoul M (2012). Age related morphological changes in haemal nodes of the Egyptian water buffalo (B. bubalus). Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Science 37:519-528
Zhang W (2013). Studies on the hemal node in Japanese black cattle. The United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Yamaguchi University, Japan.