Gastrointestinal parasitic infections in goat farms of Sikkim

Gastrointestinal parasitic infections in goat farms of Sikkim

Title: Gastrointestinal parasitic infections in goat farms of Sikkim

Authors: Papri Pal, LR Chatlod and RK Avasthe

Source: Ruminant Science (2017)-6(2):293-298.

Cite this reference as: Pal Papri, Chatlod LR and Avasthe RK (2017). Gastrointestinal parasitic infections in goat farms of Sikkim. Ruminant Science 6(2):293-298.


Of the total 488 faecal samples examined 385 (78.89%) were found positive for different parasitic infections with eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) range of 100-4800. The incidence was significantly lower in Government goat farm (68.85%) than that of privately managed farms (80.33%). The most prevalent gastrointestinal helminth parasite eggs detected were strongyles (77.86%), followed by Strongyloides spp. (52.25%), coccidian oocyst (49.18%), Moniezia spp. (44.26%), Trichuris spp. (13.52%), Nematodirus spp. (13.32%), amphistome (10.46%) and Dicrocoelium spp. (6.76%) in descending order. The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection was high in August (91.84%) and low in January (57.89%). Intensity of strongyle infection in terms of epg showed no variations when different ages, sexes and breeds were compared. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites indicating shedding of parasite eggs or oocysts was higher in goats with poor body condition (91.51%) when compared with moderate (86.92%) and good body condition (69.44%). The seasonal distribution of gastrointestinal parasitism indicated higher percentage of infection during summer (85.83%) followed by autumn (83.46%) and spring (78.5%). The infection rate was significantly lower in winter (66.94%).


Bandyopadhyay S, Devi P, Bera A, Bandyopadhyay S and Bhattacharya D (2010). Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite in goats in Shillong, Meghalaya, India. WebmedCentral Parasitology 1(9):WMC00777 1-10.

Bhat A, Reshi AA, Mir RM, Husain I, Sheikh BA and Khan HM (2014). Assessment of prevalence of parasitic infections in sheep reared in Kashmir valley India. Journal of Animal Production Advances 4(5):416-21.

Bikila E, Yeshitla A, Worku T, Teka F and Benti D (2013). Epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants in Gechi district, Southwest Ethiopia. Advances of Biological Research 7(5):169-74.

Chedge R, Dixit AK and Dixit P (2013). Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats at Adhartal, Jabalpur. Ruminant Science 2(2):155-159.

Dixit P, Rao MLV, Dixit AK and Shukla PC (2016). Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goat kids in Jabalpur. Ruminant Science 5(1):39-42.

Dagnachew S, Amamute A and Temesgen W (2011). Epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthiasis of small ruminants in selected sites of North Gondar zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Ethiopia. Veterinary Journal 15(2):57-68.

Degefu H, Abera C, Yohannes M and Tolasa T (2011). Gastrointestinal helminth infections in small-scale dairy cattle farms of Jimma town, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Applied Science and Technology 2(1):31-37.

Demissie T, Tesfaye D, Fekadu A and Asefa I (2013). Study on abomasal nematodes of sheep and goats: Comparison and characterization of vulvar morphology of Haemonchus in Hawassa, Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research 8(39):4922-27.

Gadahi JA, Arshad MJ, Ali Q, Javaid SB and Shah SI (2009). Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of sheep and goats in and around Rawalpindi, Islamabad. Veterinary World 2:51-53.

Gizachew A, Fikadu N and Birhanu T (2014). Prevalence and associated risk factors of major sheep gastrointestinal parasitesin and around Bako Town, Western Ethiopia. Livestock Research and Rural Development 26(10):1-14.

Jithendran KP and Bhat TK (1999). Epidemiology of parasitoses in dairy animals in the North West humid Himalayan region of India with particular reference to gastrointestinal nematodes. Tropical Animal Haelth and Production 31:205-214.

Kapoor D (2013). Factors influencing gastrointestinal nematode infections in Gaddi sheep and goats kept in smallholder farming conditions. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 27(1):29-30.

Kumar R, Patel SK, ReddyBV, Sharma R and Singh R (2015). Pathomorphological alterations in liver of goats in bareilly region – A brief study. Ruminant Science 4(1):57-58.

Katoch R, Mitra S, Agnihotri RK and Sharma AK (1998). Winter strongylosis in sheep and goats at high altitude: A sproradic occurrence.  Indian Veterinary Journal 75:363.

Lone BA, Chishti MZ, Ahmad F and Tak H (2012). A survey of gastrointestinal helminth  parasites of slaughtered sheep and goats in Ganderbal, Kashmir. Global Veterinarian 8(4):338-41.

MAFF  (1984). Manual of Veterinary Investigation , vol.2, (Reference Book 390, HMSO, London), 161-187. Techniques. HMSO.

Mulatu M, Fentahun T and Bogale B (2012). Gastrointestinal helminthes parasites in sheep:         Prevalence and associated risk factors, in and around Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia.        Advances of Biological Research 6(5):191-95.

Pal P and Bandyopadhyay S (2004). Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodiasis in goats in Sikkim.  Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 18(2):127-30.

Pal P,  Chatlod LR, Avasthe RK and Prasad  A (2013). Gastrointestinal helminths of goats in a subtropical and high humid zone of Sikkim, India. Ruminant Science 2(2):149-153.

Pal P,  Chatlod LR and Avasthe RK (2014). Seasonal prevalence of amphistomosis in ruminants in sikkim. Ruminant Science 3(2):171-175.

Qamar FM, Maqbool A, Khan MS, Ahmad N and Muneer MA (2009). Epidemiology of haemonchosis in sheep and goats under different managemental conditions. Veterinary World 2(110):413-17.

Rahman H, Pal P, Bandyopadhyay S and Chatlod LR (2012). Epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasitism in goats in Sikkim. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 82(4):355-58.

Ram PK and Kumar  A (2013). Incidence of helminths infection in bovine calves. Ruminant Science 2(1):75-76.

Ratanapob N, Arumipas P, Kasemsuwan S, Phimpvaphai W and Panneum S (2012). Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal parasite infection in goats raised in NakhonPathom province, Thailand. Tropical Animal Health and Production 44:741-45.

Sharma D, Katoch R and Agnihotri RK (2013). Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in Gaddi sheep of palam valley, Himachal Pradesh. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 27(1):8-11.

Sharma NK, Dadhich H, Vyas I, Kumari P and Kumar A (2015). Occurrence and pathology of amphistomiasis in sheep (Ovis aries). Ruminant Science 4(1):59-60.

Singh E, Kaur P, Singla LD and Bal MS (2017). Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism in small ruminants in western zone of Punjab, India. Veterinary world 10(1):61-66.

Singh V, Varshney P, Dash SK and Lal HP (2013). Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in and around Mathura, India. Veterinary World 6(5):260-62.

Singh AK, Shanker D, Rout PK, Kumar A, Sharma N and Kumar P (2016). Incidence and haemato-biochemical studies on goats naturally infected with coccidiosis in semi arid region, India. Ruminant Science 5(2):257-260.

Singla LD (1995) A note on sub-clinical gastro-intestinal parasitism in sheep and goats in Ludhiana and Faridkot districts of Punjab. Indian Veterinary Medical Journal 19:61-62.

Soulsby  EJL (1982). Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th Edn, ELBS and Baillire, Tindall, London. p 809.

Tsotetsi AM, Njiro S, Katsande TC, Moyo G, Baloyi F, Mpofu J (2013). Prevalence of            gastrointestinal helminthes and anthelminthic resistance on small-scale farms in Gauteng  Province, South Africa. Tropical Animal Health and Production 45:751-61.

Yadav A, Khajuria  JK and  Raina  AK (2006). Seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats of Jammu. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 20:65-68.

Yadav CL, Kumar RR, Vatsya S, Garg R and Barneerjee PS (2008). Epidemiological  studies on gastrointestinal nematodiasis in cattle and buffaloes.  Journal   of Veterinary Parasitology 22:49-52.