1-Title: Impact of environmental pollution due to industrial contaminants on health and production of small ruminants: A review

Authors: D Swarup, RC Patra and AR Gupta

Source: Ruminant Science (2013)-2(2):109-121.

How to cite this manuscript: Swarup D, Patra RC and Gupta AR (2013). Impact of environmental pollution due to industrial contaminants on health and production of small ruminants: A review. Ruminant Science 2(2):109-121.


Small ruminants represented by sheep and goats, are an important livestock resource which provides livelihood, food and financial security to millions of poor peoples, especially in the Afro-Asian countries. These animals efficiently adapt to adverse climatic conditions, require minimal expenditure on feed and housing. Shrinking natural resources, environmental degradation and anticipated climate change in future may place sheep and goats as the target animals as a resource for poor farmers. Anthropogenic activities coupled with demographic pressure and rapid growth of industrial and urban sectors, particularly in developing countries are associated with pollution of the outdoor animal environment and associated health hazards and productions. These animals are frequently exposed to environmental pollutants mainly through ingestion of contaminants present in the grazing areas and water resources around industrial and urban localities. This review mainly focus on general aspects of environmental pollution, their sources, and translocation and biological effects of industrial contaminants including solid wastes on small ruminants with special reference to Indian scenario.


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