1-Title: Camel endometrium: Light-microscopic and ultrastructural features related to pregnancy

Authors: SY Al-Ramadan

Source: Ruminant Science (2014)-3(2):129-140

How to cite this manuscript: Al-Ramadan SY (2014). Camel endometrium: Light-microscopic and ultrastructural features related to pregnancy. Ruminant Science 3(2):129-140.


The aim of the current study to provide the histology and ultra structural details of endometrium of gravid left uterine horn and further compare them with the right non-gravid and left non-gravid uterine horns in camel. The epithelium of the left gravid horn is varied between simple columnar to simple cuboidal, polygonal, or flat. A very thin layer of PAS positive material was detected in the feto-meternal interface and in the glandular lumen which was absent from right horn of pregnant uterus and left horns of non-pregnant. We also report the fusion of multinucleated giant cell (GC) with the uterine epithelium UE. We also observed some changes in the endometrial stroma at both light and electron microscopic levels.


Abd-Elnaeim MM, Pfarrer C, Saber AS, Abou-Elmagd A, Jones CJ and Leiser R (1999). Fetomaternal attachment and anchorage in the early diffuse epitheliochorial placenta of the camel (Camelus dromedarius): Light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopic study. Cells Tissues Organs 164:141-54.

Al-Eknah MM (2000). Reproduction in old world camels. Animal Reproduction Science 60-61:583-92.

Al-Ramadan SY, Ali AM and Althnian TA (2013). Analysis of the expression of progesterone and oestrogen receptors and their effect on mucin-1 at both uterine horns of pregnant camel. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 20:59-63.

Bancroft JD and Gamble M (2008). Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 6th Edn, Elsevier’s Health Sciences Rights Department. Philadelphia, USA. pp 161-186.

Bancroft JD and Cook HC (1994). Manual of histological techniques and their diagnostic application, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK.

Bazer FW, Song G, Kim J, Dunlap KA, Satterfield MC, Johnson GA, Burghardt RC and Wu G (2012). Uterine biology in pigs and sheep. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 3:23.

Bazer FW, Spencer TE, Johnson GA, Burghardt RC and Wu G (2009). Comparative Aspects of Implantation. Reproduction 138:195-209.

Elwishy AB, Hemeida NA, Omar MA, Mobarak AM and El-Sayed MA (1981). Functional changes in the pregnant camel with special reference to foetal growth. British Veterinary Journal 137(5):527-537.

Friess AE, Sinowatz F, Skolek-Winnisch R and Träautner

W (1980). The placenta of the pig. I. Finestructural changes of the placental barrier during pregnancy. Anatomy and Embryology 158:179-191.

Johnson GA, Burghardt RC and Joyce MM (2003). Osteopontin is synthesized by uterine glands and a 45-kDa cleavage fragment is localized at he uterine-placental interface throughout ovine pregnancy. Biology of Reproduction 69:92-98

Jones CJ, Abd-Elnaeim M, Bevilacqua E, Oliveira LV and Leiser R (2002). Comparison of uteroplacental glycosylation in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Lama pacos). Reproduction 123:115-26.

Klisch K, Bevilacqua E and Olivera LV (2005). Mitotic polyploidization in trophoblast giant cells of the alpaca. Cells Tissues Organs 181(2):103-8

Lewitus E and Soligo C (2011). Life-history correlates of placental structure in eutherian evolution. Evolutionary Biology 38:287-305.

Olivera L, Zago D, Leiser R, Jones C and Bevilacqua E (2003a). Placentation in the alpaca (Lama pacos). Anatomy and Embryology 207:45-62.

Olivera LV, Zago DA, Jones CJ and Bevilacqua E (2003b). Developmental changes at the materno-embryonic interface in early pregnancy of the alpaca (Lama pacos). Anatomy and Embryology 207:317-31.

Parast MM, Aeder S and Sutherland AE (2001). Trophoblast giant-cell differentiation involves changes in cytoskeleton and cell motility. Developmental Biology 230:43-60.

Perry JS and Crombie PR (1982). Ultrastructure of the uterine glands of the pig. Journal of Anatomy 134:339-350.

Porjoosh A, Raji AR, Nabipour A and Farzaneh N (2010). Gross and histological study on the uterus of camels (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Camel Practice and Research 17:91-94.

Satir P and Christensen ST (2008). Structure and function of mammalian cilia. Histochemistry and Cell Biology 129:687-693.

Skidmore JA (2005). Reproduction in dromedary camels: An update. Animal Reproduction Science 2:161-171.

Skidmore JA (2011). Reproductive physiology in female old world camelids. Animal Reproduction Science 124:148-154.

Wooding FB, Ozturk M, Skidmore JA and Allen WR (2003). Developmental changes in localization of steroid synthesis enzymes in camelid placenta. Reproduction 126:239-247