Authors: Vimlesh Kumar, S Purohit, MK Srivastava, Vijay Pandey and RP Pandey

Source: Ruminant Science (2018)-7(2):311-318.

Cite this reference as: Kumar Vimlesh, Purohit S, Srivastava MK, Pandey Vijay and Pandey RP (2018). M-mode echocardiographic studies in apparently healthy goats. Ruminant Science 7(2):311-318.


Present study was conducted on twelve apparently healthy goats free from cardiothoracic diseases to generate the reference values of M-mode echocardiographic parameters. Animals were divided into two groups of 6 animals each on the basis of age and body weight . Positive correlation with both age and body weight were observed in EPSS, RVDd, LVDd, PWD, IVSs, LVDs, EF%, S%, LVM, LA/AO, EDV, ESV and cardiac output (CO) while only with age stroke volume and body weight with PWs. Significant (<0.01) positive correlation with body weight was observed in stroke volume. Stroke volume index (SVI) and Cardiac index (CI) were having negative correlation with age and body weight of the animals. Significant (<0.05) negative correlation with body weight was observed in heart rate  of the animals. The reference values of M-mode echocardiographic parameters  will help in diagnosis of various cardiovascular diseases in goats.


Babiker MAE and Taha AAM (2015). Studies on the course and congenital anomaly of the coronary arteries in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedaries). Ruminant Science 4(1):1-5.

Bonagura JD and Fuentes LV (2000). Echocardiography. In: Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Eds: SJ Ettinger and EC Feldman. WB Saunders, Philadelphia. pp 834-873.

Boon JA (2011). Veterinary Echocardiography. 2nd Edn, Wiley-Blackwell, Ames 610.

Cobb M ( 2012). Pathophysiology of heart failure. In Practice 38:2-3.

Gardner SY, Reef VB, Palmer JE, Reimer JM and Sweeney RW (1992). Echocardiographic diagnosis of an anomaly of the tricuspid valve in a male pygmy goat. Journal Animal Veterinary Medicine Association 20:521-523.

Hallowell GD, Potter TJ and Bowen IM (2007). Methods and normal values for echocardiography in adult dairy cattle. Journal of Veterinary Cardiology 9:91-98.

Hallowell GD, Potter TJ and Bowen IM (2012). Reliability of quantitative echocardiography in adult sheep and goats. BMC Veterinary Research 8:181.

Hansson K, Haggstrom J, Kvart C and Lord P (2002). Left atrial to aortic root indices using two dimensional and M-mode echocardiography in cavalier King Charles spaniels with and without left atrial enlargement. Veterinary Radiology Ultrasound 43(6):568-575.

Kienle RD (1998). Small Animal Cardiovascular Medicine. Eds: MD Kittleson and RD Kienle. Mosby Inc St. Louis.

Leroux  AA, Farnir F, Moonen ML, Sandersen FL, Deleuze S and  Amory H (2012).  Repeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goats. BMC Veterinary Research 8:190.

Moses BL and Ross JN (1987).  M-mode echocardiographic values in sheep. Animal Journal Veterinary Research 48(9):1313-1318.

O’Grady MR, Bonagura JD, Powers JD and Herring DS (1986). Quantitative cross sectional echocardiography in normal dog. Veterinary Radiology Ultrasound 27:34-49.

Olsson K, Hansson A, Hydbring E, Von Walter LW and Haggstrom J (2001). A serial study of heart function during pregnancy, lactation and the dry period in dairy goats using echocardiography. Experimental Physiology 86(1):93-99.

Pandian SJ and Kumar P (2016). Echocardiographic assessment of oculocardiac reflex in black Bengal goats. Ruminant Science 5(2):293-296.  

Pandian SJ and Kumar P (2017). Echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function in black Bengal goat. International Journal of Livestock Research 7(2):28-34.

Singh CK (2017).  Clinical studies on standardization of echocardiographic indices in bovine. PhD thesis submitted to GADVASU, Ludhiana

Singh P, Jadon NS, Bodh D and Kandpal M (2017). M-mode echocardiographic reference values in Pantja goats. Veterinary World 10(1):22-28.

Steininger K, Berli AJS, Jud R and Schwarzwald CC (2011). Echocardiography in Saanen-goats: Normal findings, reference intervals in awake goats, and the effect of general anesthesia. Schweiz Arch Tierheilk 153(12):553-64.

Teichloz LE, Kreulen T, Herman MV and Gorlin R (1976). Problems in echocardiographic volumes determinations; echocardiographic-angiographic correlations in presence or absence of synergy. American Journal Cardiology 37:7-11.

Voros K, Holmes JR and Gibbs C (1991). Measurement of cardiac dimensions with two-dimensional echocardiography in the living horse. Equine Veterinary Journal 23(6):461-465.

Yadegari M (2014). Normal echocardiographic findings in Lori-Bakhtiari sheep. HVM Bioflux  6(2):45-48.

Yamaga T and Too K (1997). Diagnostic ultrasound imaging of vegetative valvular endocarditis in cattle. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 35:49-63.