22-Title: Retrospective study on relative efficacy of haemato-biochemical, radiographic and ultrasonographic changes in diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia in bovines

Authors: Rahul Kumar Udehiya, SS Singh, Jitender Mohindroo, Ashwani Kumar, M Raghunath and NS Saini

Source: Ruminant Science (2013)-2(1):89-95.

How to cite this manuscript: Udehiya Rahul Kumar, Singh SS, Mohindroo Jitender, Kumar Ashwani, Raghunath M and Saini NS (2013). Retrospective study on relative efficacy of haemato-biochemical, radiographic and ultrasonographic changes in diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia in bovines. Ruminant Science 2(1):89-95.


Present study was conducted on 34 animals suffering from thoracoabdominal disorders. A retrospective analysis of clinical, haemato-biochemical, radiographic and ultrasonographic finding was done in 14 confirmed cases of diaphragmatic hernia. Plasma total proteins were recorded slightly lower and other haemato-biochemical parameters were within the normal limits. Radiography was performed in 10 animals that could confirm diaphragmatic hernia in 9 cases (90%) with a sac-like oval structure in thoracic cavity. B mode ultrasonography performed in all the cases was helpful in confirming diaphragmatic hernia in 12 out of 14 cases (86%) with the motility, present at the level of 4th/5th intercostal space. The results suggested that ultrasonography and radiography are equally reliable tools for diagnosis; however, ultrasonography may be preferred over radiography as it can be performed in standing animal without stress and radiation hazards to the animal and the operator.       


Anderson DE, Cornwell D, Anderson LS, St-Jean G and Des Rochers A (1995). Comparative analyses of peritoneal fluid from calves and adult cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research 56:973-976.

Athar H, Mohindroo J, Singh K, Kumar A, Raghunath M (2010). Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography for diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia in bovines. Veterinary Medicine International doi: 10.4061/2010/939870. Epub 2010 Feb 2.

Behl SM and Krishnamurthy D (1996). Clinical and experimental studies on reticulo- omasal and pyloric functional disorders in buffaloes-A review. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 17:134.

Bisla RS, Singh J and Krishnamurthy D (2002). Assessment of oxidative stress in buffaloes from diaphragmatic hernia. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 23:77-80.

Braun U (2003). Ultrasonography in gastrointestinal disease in cattle. Veterinary Journal 166:112-124.

Braun U (2005). Ultrasound as a decision making tool in abdominal surgery in cows. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 21:33-53.

Braun U and Gotz M (1994). Ultrasonography of the reticulum in cows. American Journal of Veterinary Research 55:325-332.

Braun U, Gotz M and Marmier O (1993). Ultrasonographic findings in cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Veterinary Record 133:416-422.

Braun U, Iselin U, Lischer C and Fluri E (1998). Ultrasonographic findings in five cows before and after treatment of reticular abscess. Veterinary Record 142:184-189.

Deshpande KS, Krishnamurthy D, Nigam JM and Chandra IS (1977). Diaphragmatic hernia in bovine: A preliminary report. Haryana Vet 16:92-95.

Deshpande KS, Krishnamurthy D, Peshin PK, Chandra IS, Nigam JM (1982). Diaphragmatic hernia in bovines. Indian Veterinary Journal 59:642-646.

Jain NC (1986). Schalms Veterinary Hematology, 4th Edn, Lea and Febiger (Philadelphia, USA). pp 178-207.

Kopcha M and Schultze AE (1991). Peritoneal fluid. Part I. Pathophysiology and classifications of nonneoplastic effusions. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practising Veterinarian 13:519-524.

Krishnamurthy D, Nigam JM, Deshpande KS, Peshin PK, Singh SC and Sharma DN (1983). Bovine diaphragmatic hernia: An analysis of 140 clinical cases. Indian Veterinary Journal 60:1011-1016.

Krishnamurthy D, Nigam JM, Singh K, Nanda D and Singh N (1982). Diaphragmatic hernia in bovines, a biochemical study. Indian Veterinary Journal 3:55-61.

Kumar M, Mohindroo J, Kumar A and Singh SS (2007). Ultrasonographic diagnosis of reticulophrenic adhesions in bovines: A report on 15 clinical cases. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 28:117-119.

Kumar R, Kohli RN, Prasad B, Singh J and Sharma SN (1980). Radiogrphic diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia in cattle. Veterinary Medicine : Small Animal Clinician 305-309.

Mally KV and Jayadevappa SM (1974). Diaphragmatic hernia in bovines. Mysore Journal of Agriculture Science 8:252-264.

Mendes LCN, Peiró JR and Feitosa FLF (2005). Effect of age and abomasal puncture on peritoneal fluid, hematology and serum biochemical analyses in young calves. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 19:899-904.

Misk NA and Semieka MA (2001). The radiographic appearance of reticular diaphragmatic herniation and traumatic pericarditis in buffaloes and cattle. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound 42:426-430.

Misk NA, Semieka MA, El-Sebaie AH, Borghese A, Failla S and Barile VL (1997). Diaphragmatic hernia in buffaloes. Procedding of 5th World Buffalo Congress. pp 653-657.

Mohindroo J, Kumar M, Kumar A, Singh SS (2007). Ultrasonographic diagnosis of reticular diaphragmatic hernias in buffaloes. Veterinary Record 161:757-758.

Nigam JM, Singh AP and Mirakhur KK (1980). Radiographic diagnosis of bovine thoracic disorders. Modern Veterinary Practitioner 61:1021-1025.

Rings DM (1995). Surgical treatment of pleuritis and pericarditis. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 11:177-182.

Sahu A, Chawla SK, Krishnamurthy D, Tayal R, Behl SM and Singh J (2003). Diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy in buffaloes: clinical evaluation of 72 cases. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 24:33-34.

Saini NS, Kumar A, Mahajan SK, Sood and AC (2007). The use of ultrasonography, radiography, and surgery in the successful recovery from diaphragmatic hernia in a cow. Canadian Veterinary Journal 48:757-759.

Saini NS, Sobti VK and Mirakhur KK (2000). Retrospective evaluation of 80 non-surviving buffaloes with diaphragmatic hernia. Veterinary Record 147:275-76.

Saini NS, Sobti VK and Mirakhur KK (2001). Survivors of diaphragmatic hernia in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Indian Journal of Animal Science 71:839-840.

Sethuraman V and Rathor SS (1979). Clinical, haematological and biochemical studies in secondary indigestion in bovines due to traumatic reticulitis and diaphragmatic hernia. Indian Journal Animal Science 49:703-706.

Singh J, Dhablania DC, Prasad B, Rathor SS (1980). On the etiology of diaphragmatic hernia in buffaloes. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 42:89-91.

Singh J, Singh AP, Patil DB (1993). The digestive system. In Tyagi RPS, Singh J, (ed) Ruminant Surgery, New Delhi: India, CBS Publishers and Distributors. pp 175-182.

Sobti VK, Sharma SN, Singh K and Rathor SS (1989). Diaphragmatic hernia in buffaloes bulls. Indian Veterinary Journal 66:866.

Whitney MS, Roussel AJ and Cole DJ (1999). Cytology in bovine practice: solid tissue, pleural fluid and peritoneal fluid specimens. Veterinary Medicine 94:277-289.

Wilson AD, Hirsch VM and Osborne AD (1985). Abdominocentesis in cattle: technique and criteria for diagnosis of peritonitis. Canadian Veterinary Journal 26:74-80.