10-Title: Pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin following intramuscular administration in Berari goat a saline tract breed of Vidarbha region

Authors: N Rathod, S Kukade, MK Lonare and SW Hajare

Source: Ruminant Science (2014)-3(1):45-49.

How to cite this manuscript: Rathod N, Kukade S, Lonare MK and Hajare SW (2014). Pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin following intramuscular administration in Berari goat a saline tract breed of Vidarbha region. Ruminant Science 3(1):45-49.


The present study was conducted on six healthy male Berari goats to study the kinetic disposition of moxifloxacin following its single intramuscular administration @ 5 mg/kg body weight. The plasma drug concentration of moxifloxacin was assayed by microbiological assay with bacterial strain of E. coli (ATCC-25922TM­­). The sensitivity of moxifloxacin microbiological assay was 0.312 µg/ml. The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of Moxifloxacin following its administration as single dose in male goats was 18.77±0.30 mg.ml-1 with time required to attain the peak concentration (Tmax) was 3.33±0.42 h. Following intramuscular administration of moxifloxacin in male goats, the mean values of elimination rate (β), elimination half-life (t½β), plasma drug concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-”), area under the first order moment curve from zero to infinity (AUMC0-”),mean residence time (MRT), apparent  volume of distribution (Vd(area)) and total body clearance (CLB) were 0.34±0.03 h-1, 2.07±0.19 h, 89.67±1.42 mg.h.ml-1, 331.11±7.08 mg.h2.ml-1, 3.69±0.05 h, 5.96±0.72 L.kg-1 and 1.94±0.04 L.h-1.kg-1, respectively. On the basis of present investigation it was concluded that moxifloxacin have very good Cmax, AUC to MIC ratio so this dose can be intramuscularly administered in Berari goats in bacterial infections.


Abd El-Aty AM, Goudah A, Shah SS, Shin SC, Shimoda M and  Shim JH (2007). Pharmacokinetic variables of moxifloxacin in healthy male camels following intravenous and intramuscular administration. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 30:586-591.

Bennett JV, Brodie JL, Benner EJ and Kirby WMM (1966). Simplified, accurate method for antibiotic assay of clinical specimens. Applied Microbiology 14 (2):170-177.

Bhavsar SK, Sadariya KA, Gothi AK, Patel SD, Patel HV and Thaker AM (2010). Pharmacokinetic interaction of moxifloxacin and meloxicam following intramuscular administration in rats. International Journal Pharmaceutical Science 1(1):27-34.

Carceles CM, Escudero E, Fernandez-Varon E and Marin P (2009). Pharmacokinetics after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of moxifloxacin in sheep. Veterinary Journal 180 (3):343-347.

Carceles CM, Villamayor L, Escudero E, Marin P and Fernandez-Varon E (2007). Pharmacokinetics and milk penetration of moxifloxacin after intramuscular administration to lactating goats. Veterinary Journal 173(2):452-455.

Dalhoff A, Petersen U and Endermann R (1996). In vitro activity of BAY 12-8039, a new 8-methoxyquinolone. Chemotherapy 42:410-425.

Dumka VK and Srivastava AK (2007). Kinetic disposition, urinary excretion and dosage regimen of subcutaneously administered levofloxacin in cross bred calves. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research 8(4):313-318.

Fernandez-Varon E, Villamayor L, Escudero E, Espuny A and Carceles CM (2006). Pharmacokinetics and milk penetration of moxifloxacin after intravenous and subcutaneous administration to lactating goats. Veterinary Journal 172:302-307.

Ferrero L, Cameron B, Manse B, Langneauxet D, Crouzet J and Famechon A (1994). Cloning and primary structure of Staphylococcus aureus DNA topoisomerase IV: A primary target of fluoroquinolones. Molecular  Microbiology 13(4):641-653.

Gardner SY, Davis JL, Jones SL, Lafevers DH, Hoskins MS, Mcarver EM and Papich MG (2004). Moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics in horses and disposition into phagocytes after oral dosing. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 27:57-60.

Goudah A (2008). Disposition kinetics of moxifloxacin in lactating ewes. Veterinary Journal 178:282-287.

Lode H, Borner K and Koeppe P (1998). Pharmacodynamics of fluoroquinolones. Clinical Infectious Diseases 27(1):33-39.

Nightingale CH, Grant EM and Quintiliani R (2000). Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin. Chemotherapy 46(1):6-14.

Notari RE (1980). Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics- An introduction. 4th Edn, Marcell dekker Inc, New York.

Odenholt I and Cars O (2006). Pharmacodynamics of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli: Simulation of human plasma concentrations after intravenous dosage in an in vitro kinetic model. Journal of Antimicrobiology and Chemotherapy 58(5):960-965.

Patel HB, Mody SK, Patel HB, Patel VA and Patel UD (2011). Disposition kinetic of moxifloxacin following intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous administration in goats. International Scholarly Research Notices: Veterinary Science p 5.

Pathania R and Sharma SK (2010). Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of moxifloxacin in buffalo calves. Research in Veterinary Science 89:108-112.

Shrivastava AK and Bal MS (1994). Principles and calculation in pharmacokinetics. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana.

Siefert HM, Domdey-Bette A, Henninger F, Hucke F, Kohlsdorfer  C, Steinke W and Stass  HH (1999). Pharmacokinetics of the 8-methoxyquinolone, moxifloxacin: A comparison in humans and other mammalian species. Journal of Antimicrobial and Chemotherapy 43: 69-76.

Toutain PL and Bousquet A (2004). Volume of distribution. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 27:441-453.

Walker RD (2000). The use of fluoroquinolones for companion animal antimicrobial therapy. Australian Veterinary Journal 78(2):84-90.

Winters RE, Litwack KD and Hewitt WL (1971). Family member between dose and levels of gentamicin in blood. Journal of Infectious Diseases 124. Supplement: S90-S95.