24-Title: Ultrasonographic features of the liver and associated structures in goats (Capra hircus)

Authors: Sree Sai Satish, M Hoque, SK Maiti, AC Saxena and D Bodh

Source: Ruminant Science (2014)-3(1):117-120.

How to cite this manuscript: Satish Sree Sai, Hoque M, Maiti SK, Saxena AC and Bodh D (2014). Ultrasonographic features of the liver and associated structures in goats (Capra hircus). Ruminant Science 3(1):117-120.


Hepatic ultrasonography was done in ten non-descript adult goats of both sexes to record normal data for future reference. The liver, caudal vena cava, portal vein, and hepatic vein were most effectively examined in the 7th to 12th intercostals spaces in standing position or with the animal in left lateral recumbency using 5 MHz sector transducer. The gall bladder was examined in standing or lateral recumbency from the right side at 9th and /or 10th intercostals space/s using 6/8 MHz linear transducer. Normal echogenicity of the liver consisted of numerous weak echoes homogeneously distributed on the entire parenchyma. The portal and hepatic vein and caudal vena cava (CVC) appeared as structures with anechoic lumen and hyperechoic wall. The CVC was seen only outside the hepatic parenchyma. The gall bladder appeared as a fluid-filled vesicle with anechoic lumen and hyperechoic margin with variable shapes, depending on its bile content.


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