3-Title: Genital morphometric variations and endocrine changes of the one-humped male camel in relation to reproductive activity
Authors: Gherissi Djallel Eddine, Bouzebda Zoubir, Bouzebda Afri Farida and Lamraoui Ramzi
Source: Ruminant Science (2014)-3(1):9-18.
How to cite this manuscript: Eddine Gherissi Djallel, Zoubir Bouzebda, Farida Bouzebda Afri and Ramzi Lamraoui (2014). Genital morphometric variations and endocrine changes of the one-humped male camel in relation to reproductive activity. Ruminant Science 3(1):9-18.
One hundred ninety-nine male dromedary camels of Sahraoui breed aged between 1-13 years were used to study the reproductive activity in relation to three pubertal stages (prepubertal; peripubertal and mature) and three consecutive breeding seasons (breeding, post breeding and non breeding). A total of nine testicular and epididymal measurements (TEMs) and two serum reproductive steroid hormones concentrations (SHCs) were evaluated. There were significant positive correlations (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.001) between different studied parameters. A gradual increase of the TEMs and SHCs occurred with age categories and the maximum values of TEMs were noted during the breeding season which persisted high in post breeding season and dropped significantly during the non breeding season, however the important steroidogenic activity was limited to the breeding season. Mature animals responded most to the effect of the season, thus, they showed maximum seasonal variations of the studied parameters between breeding/non breeding seasons, however scrotal circumference (SC) and progesterone concentration (P4) were the only measurements significantly variable between breeding/post breeding and pared testicular weight (PTW) was significantly variable between post breeding/non breeding seasons. It was concluded that the morphological and endocrinological methods are useful for monitoring the testicular function of dromedary in relation to pubertal age and seasonal activity.
Abdallah HR and Faye B (2012). Phenotypic classification of Saudi Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) by their body measurements. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 24(3):272-280.
Abdel Rahim SEA (1997). Studies on the age of puberty of male camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Saudi Arabia. Veterinary Journal 154:79-83.
Abd-Elaziz MI, Kassem AM, Zaghloul DM, Der-Balah AE and Bolefa MH (2012). Ultrastructure of the interstitial tissue in the testis of Egyptian dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Pakistan Veterinary Journal 32:65-69.
Abd-Elmaksoud A, Sayed-Ahmed A, Kassab M and Aly K (2008). Histochemical mapping of glycoconju-gates in the testis of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) during rutting and non-rutting seasons. Acta Histochem 110:124-133.
Akingbemi BT and Aire TA (1991). Testicular dimensions in sperm reserves in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 39:121-123.
Al Asaad A, Salhab SA and Al-Daker MB (2007). Development of testicular dimensions and relative puberty in shami camel males. Journal of Agronomic Research 23(2):233-250.
Al Eknah MM (2000). Reproduction in old world camels. Animal Reproduction Science 60-61:583-592.
Al Qarawi AA, Abdel-Rahman HA, El-Belely MS and El-Mougy SA (2001). Intratesticular morphometric. Cellular and endocrine changes around the pubertal period in dromedary camels. Veterinary Journal 162:241-249.
Ali Abdullahi I, Al-Hassan Musa H and Jibril A (2012). Scrotal circumference and testicular morphometric characteristics of the camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the semi- arid environment of northern Nigeria. International Journal of Morphology 30(4):1369-1372.
Al-Qarawi AA, Abdel-Rahman HA, El-Belely MS and El-Mougy SA (2000). Age-related changes in plasma testosterone concentrations and genital organs content of bulk and trace elements in the male dromedary camel. Animal Reproduction Science 62:297-307.
Al-Saiady MY, Mogawer HH, Al-Mutairi SE, Bengoumi M, Musaad A, Gar-Elnaby A and Faye B (2013). Effect of different feeding system on body weight, testicular size developments, and testosterone level in pre-pubertal male camel (Camelus dromedarius). African Journal of Agricultural Research 8(22):2631-2636.
Arthur GH, Bahim AT and Al-Hindi AS (1985). The camel in health and disease: 7. Reproduction and genital diseases of the camel. British Veterinary Journal 141:650-659.
Bedrak E, Rosenstrauch A, Kafka M and Friedlander M (1983). Testicular steroidogenesis in the camel during the mating and non-mating seasons. General and Comparative Endocrinology 52:255-264.
Bono G, Dahir AM, Comin A and Jumale MA (1989). Plasms lh, corticoid and sex steroid variations in camel (Camelus dromedaries) in relation to seasonal climatic changes. Animal Reproduction Science 21:101-113.
Charnot Y (1964). Le cycle testiculaire du dromedaire. Bulletine of Society of Science Maroc. Tome 44. 3e et 4e Trimestr 44:37-45.
Derar RD, Hasan AH and Ahmad A (2012). Reference values for the genitalia of male dromedary before and after puberty using caliper and ultrasonography in subtropics. Theriogenology 77:459-465.
Dixit VP, Mehta SN, Georgia GC and Signal SP (1987). Serum testosterone and cortisone in rutting and non-rutting Indian male camel. Indian Journal of Animal Science 57:1191-1193.
El-Bahrawy KA and El-Hassanien EE (2011). Seasonal variation of some blood and seminal plasma biochemical parameters of male dromedary camels. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 10(3):354-360.
El-Harairy MA and Attia KA (2010). Effect of age, pubertal stage and season on testosterone concentration in male dromedary camel. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 17:227-230.
El-Kon II, Heleil BA and Mahmoud SA (2011). Effect of age and season on the testicular sperm reserve and testosterone profile in camel (camelus dromedarius). Animal Reproduction Science 8(3/4):68-72.
Gombe S and Oduor-Okelo D (1977). Effect of temperature and relative humidity on plasma and gonadal testosterone concentrations in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Reproduction Fertility 50:107-108.
Ismail M (1990). Situation et perspectives de l’élevage camelin en Tunisie in Revue des régions arides 1:113-134.
Ismail ST (1988). Reproduction in the male dromedary. Theriogenology 29:1407-1418.
Kamili A, Bengoumi M and Faye B (2006). Assessment of body condition and body composition in camel by barymetric measurements. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 13(1):67-72.
Marai IFM, Zeidan AEB, Abdel-Samee AM, Abizaid A and Fadiel A (2009). Camels’ reproductive and physiological performance traits as affected by environmental conditions. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems 10(2):129-149.
Merkt H, Rath D and Musa B (1990). Reproduction in camels. FAO Animal Production and Health; Bulletin No. 82.
Palta P, Bansal N, Pandita S, Manik RS and Singla SK (1996). Radioimmunoassay and Enzyme Immunoassay of Hormones: Principles and Methods. Embryo Biotechnology Centre. NDRI, Karnal, Haryana. India.
Pasha RH, Qureshi AS, Lodhi LA and Jamil H (2011a). Biometric and ultrasonographic evaluation of the testis of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Pakistan Veterinary Journal 31:2074-7764.
Pasha RH, Qureshi AS, Lodhi LA, Jamil H, Masood A, Hamid S, Iqbal J, Kamran Z and Khamas WA (2011b). Morphological seasonal changes in the testis of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Camel Practice and Research 18:145-158.
Rabagliati DS (1924). La dentition du dromadaire. In: The camel. Health in Semi-Arid Areas. El-Arish. North Sinai. Egypt.
Rahman Z, Ahmad N, Bukhari SA, Akhtar N and Haq IU (2007). Serum hormonal, electrolytes and trace element profiles in the rutting and non-rutting one-humped male camel (Camelus dromedarius). Animal Reproduction Science 101:172-178.
Rai AK, Tandon SN and Khanna ND (1988). Copulation time of Bikaneri male camels. Indian Journal of Animal Science 58:1202-1203.
Sghiri A (1988). Evaluation des performances de reproduction d’un troupeau camelin à Laayoune (Camelus dromedarius). Thèse de Doctorat Vétérinaire. Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II. Rabat. Maroc.
Singh UB and Bharadwaj MB (1978a). Morphological changes in the testis and epididymis of camels (Camelus dromedarius). Acta Anatomica 10:274-279.
Singh UB and Bharadwaj MB (1978b). Histological and histochemical studies on the testis of camel (Camelus dromedarius) during the various seasons and ages – Part II. Acta Anatomica 101:280-288.
Skidmore JA (2005). Reproduction in dromedary camels: An update. Animal Reproduction 2:161-171.
Skidmore JA and Adams GP (2000). Recent advances in camelid reproduction: Reproductive physiology in male and female camels. International Veterinary Information Service. Ithaca NY (www.ivis.org). A1002.0600.
Tibary A and Anouassi A (1997a). Reproductive physiology of the male. Theriogenology in camelidae. Institut Agronomique et Veterinarie Hassan II. Rabat. Maroc. (eds.). Abu Dhabi Printing and Publishing Company. pp 49-78.
Tibary A and Anouassi A (1997b). Male breeding soundness. In Theriogenology in Camelidae. 1st Edn, Published by ministry of Agriculture and Information. UAE, pp 79-114.
Tingari MD, RahmaBA and Saad AH (1984a). Morphological and histochemical changes in the camel poll glands as related to reproductive activity. Acta anatomica 111:151-152.
Tingari MD, Ramos AS, Rahma BA, Gaili ESE and Saad AH (1984b). Morphology of the testis of the one-humped camels in relation to reproductive activity. Journal of Anatomy 139:133-143.
Wilson RT (1984). The camel. The print house. Pte Ltd, Singapore, p 223.
Yagil R and Etzion Z (1980). Hormonal and behavioural patterns in the male camel (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 58:61-65.
Zayed AE, Ismail KA, Ibrahim AA and El-Maksoud FMA (2012). Morphological studies on the seasonal changes in the epididymal duct of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Veterinary Science Development 2(e3):7-14.
Zayed AE, Hifny A, Abou-Elmagd A and Wrobel KH (1995). Seasonal changes in the intertubular tissue of the camel testis (Camelus dromedarius). Annals of Anatomy 177: 199-212.
Zeidan AEB, Habeeb AAM, Ahmadi EAA, Amer HA and Abd El-Razik A (2001). Testicular and physiological changes of the male dromedary camels in relation to different ages and seasons of the year. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Animal Production.