Title: Epidemiological, etiological and clinico-therapeutic investigations on pica in cattle
Authors: AS Lengare, AU Bhikane, SS Ghoke and AM Syed
Source: Ruminant Science (2016)-5(1):73-80.
Cite this reference as: Lengare AS, Bhikane AU, Ghoke SS and Syed AM (2016). Epidemiological, etiological and clinico-therapeutic investigations on pica in cattle. Ruminant Science 5(1):73-80.
Pica or depraved appetite is usually associated with dietary deficiency of either of bulk or in some cases more specifically fibers or of individual nutrients, particularly salt, cobalt, phosphorous or total protein. In one year study conducted in two villages of Latur district of Maharashtra (India) forty clinical cases of pica were recorded in cattle with overall incidence of 4.94 per cent. Adult lactating or pregnant cattle maintained exclusively on dry roughages were found to be more affected during dry season. The cardinal feature of pica noticed was the tendency of affected animals to lick/bite/chew/eat inanimate objects such as cloths, leather, polythene, stones, soils, bones and human feces. Hematological parameters revealed highly significant (P<0.01) decrease in Hb, non significant decrease in PCV, TEC, MCV and MCHC in affected cattle as compared to healthy one. Serum biochemical analysis indicated highly significant (P<0.01) decrease in the mean values of calcium, phosphorous, potassium, total proteins, iron, sodium and chloride. Analysis of etiological factors associated with pica in cattle showed maximum number of cases due to nutritional deficiency alone (57.50%) followed by nutritional deficiency plus worm load (25%). Based on the results of therapeutic trial, it is concluded that chelated mineral mixture is more effective than picacare in treatment of pica in cattle.
Abdul Majeed Abi, Abbas B and Dehine FW (1991). The pathogenesis of foreign body pica syndrome in goats. Agri. Pract., 12(2):31-35
Abdou OM, Radwan RA, Arab RM, Soliman AS and El-Neweeny TK (1986). A first record of milk lameness in buffaloes in Egypt. Vet.Med.J. Giza, Egypt 34 (2): 165-181
Akgul Y, Agaoglu A, Kaya A and Sahin T (2000). The relationship between the syndromes of wool eating and alopecia in Akkaraman and Morkaram sheep fed corn silage and blood change (haematological, biochemical and trace elements). Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 56:1-6.
Aines PD and Smith SE (1957). Sodium versus chloride for the therapy of salt deficient dairy cow. Journal of Dairy Science 40:682.
Bademkiran S, Yokus B, Icen H, Cakir D and Kurt D (2008). Assessment of serum mineral and certain biochemical variables in self-sucking dairy cows. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 7(6):717-722.
Bhikane AU (2000). Epidemiology, clicico-pathology, treatment and control of phosphorous deficiency in and around Udgir. PhD Thesis submitted to MAU, Parbhani.
Brooks HV, Cook TG, Mansell GP and Walker GA (1984). Phosphorus deficiency in a dairy herd. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 32:174-176.
Chakrabarti A (1994). Text Book of Clinical Veterinary Medicine. 2nd Edn, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, p148.
Coppock CE (1986). Mineral utilization by the lactating cow-chlorine. Journal of Dairy Science 69:595.
Correa WM, Correa CNM, Gattschalk AF, Zezzaneto L and Fernandis NS (1971). Cobalt deficiency in calves from Saopaulostate. Arquivos do Instituto Biologico, 38:201-205
Dalling Sir Thomas (1966). ‘PICA’ International Encyclopedia of Veterinary Medicine, I: 2283 W Green and Sons Ltd, Edenburg.
Fettman MJ, Chase LE, Bentinck-Smith J, Coppock CE and Zinn SA (1984). Nutritional chloride deficiency in early lactation Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 67:2321.
Firyal S (2007). Pica (Depraved appetite; Allotrophagia) in domestic animals and man. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 27:208-210
Ghanem MM (2010). A comparative study on traumatic reticuloperitonitis and traumatic pericarditis in Egyptian cattle. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science 34(2):143-153.
Ghergariu S, Bale G, Musca M and Kadar L (1994). Epidemiological, clinical and biochemical features of blood and urine in cattle in an area of enzootic osteomalacia. Revista Romana de Medicina Veterinar 4(1):37-47
Haque S and Verma BB (1989). Clinicopatholgical changes in hypophosphataemia in crossbred cattle. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 9(2):133-137.
Jericho KWF and Church TL (1972). Behavioural problem in housed animal in swine. Can. Vet. J., 13:156-158.
Kishore R (1998). Clinico-haemato-biochemical and therapeutic studies on bovine suffering from allotriophagia. MVSc Thesis submitted to RAU, Bikaner, Rajasthan.
Lengare AS, Bhikane AU, Ghoke SS and Awaz KB (2012). Pica in buffaloes with special reference to its etiology and treatment. Intas Polivet 13(1):62-66.
McDowell LR (1992). Minerals in Animal and Human Nutrition. Academic press Inc, San Diego, USA, p 26, 78, 98, 389.
Mohammed AK and Muhammed IR (2007). Fatal polythene bag rumen impaction in cattle at Shika- Zaria. Nigerian Research Journal of Animal Science 1(1):6-8
Pradhan K and Hemken RW (1968). Potassium depletion in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 51:1377.
Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff KW and Constable PD (2007). Veterinary Medicine. 10th Edn, WB Sounders Co, Edinburgh, London, p 1697.
Salunke VM, Bhikane AU, Mendhe MS, Gaikwad NZ and Waskar VS (2009). Effect of parenteral administration of phosphorous on health and serum inorganic phosphorus levels in Deoni calves suffering with subclinical hypophosphatemia- A comparative study. Intas Polivet 10(11):181-183.
Snedecor GM and WC Cochran (1994). Statistical Methods. 8th Edn, Iowa State University Press, Ames, lowa.
Singh B (2005). Harmful effects of plastic in animals. Indian Cow Oct-Dec: 10-18.
Sutaria T, Chauhan PM, Sutaria P, Nakhashi HC and Suthar BN (2013). Diagnosis and retrieval of ruminal plastic foreign body in a sirohi goat. Ruminant Science 2(1):103-105.
Umair Iqbal M and Sohail Sajid M (2005). Phosphorus deficiency in dairy animals. DAWN Science; October 8, pp:1-3
Underwood EJ and Suttle NF (2001). Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. 3rd Edn, CAB, England. p 1697, 1701, 1729.
Yadav JS (1993). Studies on some aspects of pica in cattle and buffaloes. MVSc Thesis submitted to CCS, HAU, Hisar.