Title: In vitro efficacy of commercial preparation of Amitraz in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in north Gujarat, India
Authors: Neelu Sharma, Veer Singh and KP Shyma
Source: Ruminant Science (2016)-5(1):33-37.
Cite this reference as: Sharma Neelu, Singh Veer and Shyma KP (2016). In vitro efficacy of commercial preparation of Amitraz in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in north Gujarat, India. Ruminant Science 5(1):33-37.
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks are the most prevalent one host tick species present in India and is responsible for severe economic loses to dairy and leather industry by adversely affecting milk production and quality of hides. Chemical control by acaricide has resulted in development of resistance in ticks and hence ticks are difficult to control. A study was conducted to assess the efficacy of commercial preparation of Amitraz in R. (B.) microplus ticks of North Gujarat by two step stratified random sampling procedure from areas having complain of treatment failure by using Amitraz. Larval packet test (LPT) was conducted using field strain for determination of 50 and 95% lethal concentration of Amitraz. Results obtained from the test showed inefficacy of Amitraz in tick isolates from Vasda (LC 50 -487.79; LC – 4497.18) and Rooppura (LC50- 5176.41; LC95 – 154471.7) which are much higher than the market recommended dose rate. The data on field status of acaricide resistance from the area with diversified animal genetic resources will be helpful to adopt suitable strategy to overcome the process of development of resistance in ticks.
Aguirre DH, Vinabal AE, Salatin AO, Cafrune MM, Volpogni MM, Mangold AJ and Guglielmone AA (2000). Susceptibility to two pyrethroids in Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) populations of northwest Argentina: Preliminary results. Veterinary Parasitology 88:329-334.
Biswas S (2003). Effects of ticks on animal production system. In: Proceedings the national seminar of Leather Industry in Today’s Perspective. 14-15 November, Kolkata, India.
Castro-Janer E, Rifran L, Piaggio J, Gil A, Miller RJ, Schumaker TTS (2009). In vitro tests to establish LC50 and discriminating concentrations for fipronil against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their characterization. Veterinary Parasitology 162:120-128.
Curtis RJ (1985). Amitraz in the control of non-Ixodidae ectoparasites of livestock. Veterinary Parasitology 18:251-264
Elfassy OJ, Goodman FW, Levy SA and Carter LL (2001) Efficacy of an amitraz-impregnated collar in preventing transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi by adult Ixodes scapularis to dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219:185-189.
FAO (1971). Recommended methods for the detection and measurement of resistance of agricultural pests to Pesticides-Tentative method for larvae of cattle ticks, Boophilus microplus spp. FAO method No. 7. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 19:15-18
FAO (2004). Ticks: Acaricide resistance: Diagnosis, management and integrated parasite control in ruminants: Guidelines. pp 25-77.
Finney DJ (1961). Probit analysis–A statistical treatment of the response curve. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1-318.
Floris I, Satta A, Garau VL, Melis M, Cabras P and Aloul N (2001) Effectiveness, persistance, and residue of amitraz plastic strips in the apiary control of Varroa destructor. Apidologie 32:577585
Garris GI and George JE (1985). Field evaluation of amitraz applied to cattle as sprays for control of Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the eradication program in Puerto Rico. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 3:363-369.
Ghosh S, Azhahianambi P and de la Fuente J (2006). Control of ticks of ruminants, with special emphasis on livestock farming systems in India: Present and future possibilities for integrated control- A review. Experimental and Applied Acarology 40:49-66.
Geeverghese G (2000). Taxonomic features and biology of Ixodid and Argasid ticks of veterinary and medical importance. NTP organized by CAS, Bangalore.
Haque M, Jyoti, Singh NK and Rath SS (2014). Effect of various acaricides on hatchability of eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. BioMed Research International Article ID 425423, 5 pages
Jongejan F and Uilenberg G (2004). The global importance of ticks. Parasitology 129:S3-S14.
Jonsson NN and Hope M (2007). Progress in the epidemiology and diagnosis of amitraz resistance in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Veterinary Parasitology 146:193-198.
Kagaruki LK (1996). The efficacy of amitraz against cattle ticks in Tanzania. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 63:91-96.
Kumar S, Jayakumar K, Srinivasan MR, Udupa V and Ramesh N (2001). Biological efficacy of amitraz against the three host tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Indian Journal of Animal Science 71:527-528.
Kumar S, Sharma AK, Ray DD and Ghosh S (2014). Determination of discriminating dose and evaluation of amitraz resistance status in different field isolates of Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in India. Experimental and Applied Acarology 62: DOI 10.1007/s10493-014-9789-8.
Minjauw B and Mc Leod A (2003). Research report, DFID Animal Health Programme, Centre for tropical Veterinary medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK. pp 59-60.
Mathivathani C, Abdul Basith S, Latha BR and Dhinakar Raj
G (2011). In vitro evaluation of synthetic pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks of Chennai. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 25:56-58.
Pound JM, Miller JA and George JE (2000) Efficacy of amitraz applied to white-tailed deer by the O4- posterolateral topical treatment device in controlling free-living long star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 37:878-884.
Ravikumar RK, Vivek Kumar, Hardev Choudhary, Amol S Kinhekar and Vipin Kumar (2015). Efficacy of indigenous polyherbal ectoparasiticide formulation against hard tick infestation in cattle (Bos indicus). Ruminant Science 4(1):43-47.
Ravindran R, Ramankutty SA, Juliet S, Palayullaparambil AKT, Gopi J, Golpalan AKK, Nair SN and Ghosh S (2014). Comparision of in vitro acaricidal effects of commercial preparations of cypermethrin and fenvalerate against Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Springer Plus 3:90.
Robertson JL, Russell RM, Preisler HK and Savin NE (2006). Pesticide Bioassays with Arthropods. 2nd Edn, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
Roma GC, de Oliveira PR, Pizano MA and Mathias MIC (2009). Determination of LC50 of permethrin acaricide in semi-engorged females of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae). Experimental Parasitology 123:269-72.
Sajid MS, Iqbal Z, Khan MN, Muhammad G and Iqbal MU (2007). Effect of Hyalomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on milk production of dairy buffaloes (Bos bubalus bubalis) of Punjab (Pakistan). International Journal of Animal Science 6:939-941.
Sen SK and Fletcher TB (1962). Veterinary entomology and acarology for India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp. 668.
Shyma KP, Kumar S, Sangwan AK, Ray DD and Ghosh S (2013). Acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum collected from Haryana. Indian Journal of Animal Science 83:591-594.
Shyma KP, Gupta JP, Singh V and Patel KK (2015). In vitro detection of acaricidal resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against commercial preparation of deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil from North Gujarat, India. Journal of Parasitological Research ID 506586, 7 pages.
Singh NK, Gelot IS, Jyoti, Singh V and Rath SS (2015). Detection of amitraz resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from North Gujarat, India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 39:49-52.