Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of ethanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysentrica stem bark (Pandhara kuda)

Title: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of ethanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysentrica stem bark (Pandhara kuda)

Authors: D Barman, KB Prajapati, MM Pawar, K Prasad, JB Patel and N Galsar

Source: Ruminant Science (2017)-6(1):89-94.

Cite this reference as: Barman D, Prajapati KB, Pawar MM, Prasad K, Patel JB and Galsar N (2017). Cotton seed cake as protein supplement in buffalo calf ration. Ruminant Science 6(1):89-94.


The experiment was conducted to evaluate cotton seed cake as a protein source in ration of Mehsana buffalo calves. Twenty Mehsana buffalo calves of three months age were divided randomly into two groups, T1 fed concentrate mixture + green oat fodder + jowar hay, while T2 fed concentrate mixture and cotton seed cake (50:50) + green oat fodder + jowar hay. The feeding trial experiment was conducted for period of 90 days. Body weights and biometric measurements of individual calves were recorded at the commencement of the experiment and followed by monthly interval. Feed conversion ratio and economics of feeding were also calculated. Average daily body weight gain of calves during the experimental period was higher (P<0.01) in T2 group as compared to T1 group. The body biometric measurements in terms of heart girth, height at wither and body lengths were also higher in T2 than T1 group. Dry matter intake was similar between two groups. The cost of feeding per day per animal was higher in T2 group than T1; however, cost of feeding per kg weight gain was lower in T2 than T1 group. The serum levels of total protein, globulin, ALP, SGOT, SGPT and thyroid hormones were significantly higher in cotton seed cake fed group compared to control group. Results indicated that inclusion of cotton seed cake (50%) in ration of Mehsana buffalo calves improved body weight gain, biometrical changes, feed conversion ratio with lower cost of feeding per kg weight gain and higher serum protein as well as thyroid hormone levels.


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