Title: Ultrasonography of udder and teat in dairy animals
Authors: NR Amin, DB Patil, DN Kelawala, PV Parikh, DR Mer, KS Gameti and KM Gohil
Source: Ruminant Science (2017)-6(1):173-177.
Cite this reference as: Amin NR, Patil DB, Kelawala DN, Parikh PV, Mer DR, Gameti KS and Gohil KM (2017). Ultrasonography of udder and teat in dairy animals. Ruminant Science 6(1):173-177.
Thirty eight bovines (cow-26 and buffalo-12), udder and teats were examined by ultrasonography (USG) using 7.5 to 18 MHz frequency transducers by contact gel and water bath methods. Contact gel technique provided better visualization of teat cistern and water bath technique gave good detail of distal portion of teat. The glandular parenchyma was seen as homogenous hypoechoic with anechoic alveoli. The lactiferous ducts and vessels of bovine mammary gland appeared as anechoic structures. Three layers of teat wall were clearly seen: outer hyperechoic, middle hypoechoic and inner hyperechoic. Teat cistern appeared as an anechoic area surrounded by a hyperechoic line (mucosa).
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