Excretory urographic and ultrasonographic studies of urinary system in goats (Capra hircus)

Title: Excretory urographic and ultrasonographic studies of urinary system in goats (Capra hircus)

Authors: MK Verma, S Purohit, Achintya Gowtham, PR Singh, DM Tripathi, Vijay Pandey and RP Pandey

Source: Ruminant Science (2017)-6(1):177-184.

Cite this reference as: Verma MK, Purohit S, Gowtham Achintya, Singh PR, Tripathi DM, Pandey Vijay and Pandey RP (2017). Excretory urographic and ultrasonographic studies of urinary system in goats (Capra hircus). Ruminant Science 6(1):177-184.


The present study was conducted on 8 healthy adult goats of either sex to evaluate the urinary system by excretory urography, ultrasonography, urine analysis and hemato-biochemistry. Ventro-dorsal and right lateral radiographic exposures were made at 0, 5, 15, 30 and 45 min intervals after iohexol contrast agent infusion @700 mg I/kg body weight. The excretory urograms were evaluated based on the visibility of iohexol in the urinary organs in both the views wherein, the best visualization of the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder were observed at 0 min to 15 min intervals, 0 min interval, and 15 to 45 min intervals, respectively. Radiographic biometric measurements i.e. kidney length, width, ratio of kidney length and width to the length of L-2 vertebrae were taken at 5 min interval using the in-built calipers in the CR system. Ultrasonographic biometric measurements i.e. kidney length, width, height, volume, cortex thickness taken length-wise and width-wise, and urinary bladder wall thickness were taken by 3.5-7.5 MHz micro-convex transducer. Urine analysis, hematological and biochemical parameter were measured by using standard techniques. Significant (P<0.05) differences were observed in the radiographic biometry of kidney lengths bilaterally; the ultrasonographic biometry of kidney length, width and volume bilaterally; left kidney height and length of cortex thickness taken width-wise; urinary bladder wall thickness and total protein level in the serum; when compared between male and female goats. It was concluded that combination of diagnostic procedures are required for accurate evaluation of anatomy and physiological function of the urinary system.


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