Prenatal development of humerus in goat (Capra hircus)

Title: Prenatal development of humerus in goat (Capra hircus)

Authors: Avnish Chaudhary, Archana Pathak, Ajay Prakash, Abhinov Verma and MM Farooqui

Source: Ruminant Science (2018)-7(1):59-62.

Cite this reference as: Chaudhary Avnish, Pathak Archana, Prakash Ajay, Verma Abhinov and Farooqui MM (2018). Prenatal development of humerus in goat (Capra hircus). Ruminant Science 7(1):59-62.


The study was conducted on the humerus of non-descript goats irrespective of sex from 35 to 148 days of gestation. On 44 days of gestation, a miniature of humerus was formed in arm region consisted of a shaft and two extremities. The proximal extremity was enlarged with three swellings for the formation of future head of humerus and two tuberosities. The distal extremity had two swellings for the formation of condyles. At 46 days of gestation, the centres of ossification were exhibited for the diaphysis of humerus, in Alizarin Red-S stained specimens. On 52 days of gestation, the proximal extremity of humerus was well differentiated into head, medial tuberosity and lateral tuberosity. At 62 days of gestation, the formation of olecranon fossa was initiated at the caudal aspect of distal extremity of humerus. At 82 days of gestation, the lateral tuberosity was distinctly divided into summit and convexity. At 83 days, the formation of deltoid tuberosity was observed as a prominence at the junction of lateral and cranial surface of proximal 1/3rd shaft of humerus. The total length of humerus and its ossified length increased with the advancement of age. The centres of ossification for proximal and distal extremities were observed at 119 and 135 days of gestation, respectively.



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