15-Title: Gross and biometrical studies on humerus of chital (Axis axis)

Authors: OP Choudhary, R Mathur, S Joshi, G Beniwal and A Dangi

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):161-164.

How to cite this manuscript: Choudhary OP, Mathur R, Joshi S, Beniwal G and Dangi A (2012). Gross and biometrical studies on humerus of chital (Axis axis). Ruminant Science 1(2):161-164.


The present study has been done on the humerus of chital. In humerus the musculo-spiral groove was shallow. The deltoid tuberosity was less prominent. The head was roughly rounded and the neck was well-defined. The lateral tuberosity was large and curved over the bicipital groove. The medial tuberosity was much smaller and did not divide noticeably. The coronoid fossa and olecranon fossae communicated by a small supra-trochlear foramen in some specimens. The average greatest length of the humerus of Chital was 19.86±0.04 cm. The average maximum breadth of proximal extremity, shaft and distal extremity was 5.39±0.02 cm, 3.48±0.03 cm and 3.65±0.03 cm, respectively. The maximum breadth of head was 3.79±0.03 cm.



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16-Title: Occurrence of tubulo-nephrosis in kidneys of sheep: Histopathological study

Authors: Manisha Mathur, H Dadhich, S Khare and AP Singh

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):165-166.

How to cite this manuscript: Mathur Manisha, Dadhich H, Khare S and Singh AP (2012). Occurrence of tubulo-nephrosis in kidneys of sheep: Histopathological study. Ruminant Science 1(2):165-166.


In present study, a total of 1284 sheep kidneys were examined and out of these, 223 specimens showing frank lesions were further evaluated by histopathological examination. The tubulo-nephrosis was recorded in 4.93 per cent cases of the total affected kidneys. Grossly, the affected kidneys appeared enlarged, pale, swollen with tense and non-adherent capsule. Microscopically, renal nephrosis was characterized by mild to moderate   cellular swelling, hydropic degeneration and coagulative necrosis in the tubular epithelium. However, the cellular infiltration was too scanty. Hyaline casts were also evident in the lumen of some tubules. 


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