1-Title: Transition period in dairy animals: Physiological changes and molecular insights
Authors: Savleen Kour, Neelesh Sharma and Sandeep Kour
Source: Ruminant Science (2021)-10(2):237-246.
How to cite this manuscript: Kour Savleen, Sharma Neelesh and Kour Sandeep (2021). Transition period in dairy animals: Physiological changes and molecular insights. Ruminant Science 10(2):237-246.
The interaction between the endocrine and metabolic systems in dairy cows during the transition period is the most critical one as there is an economic loss to the farmers due to a drop in milk production and high culling rates. Among the hormones, growth hormone plays a pivotal role in carbohydrates and lipid metabolism during prenatal life, increases the lipolysis in adipose tissue and subsequently increases the level of NEFA. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is the primary mediator of the effects of growth hormone and shares structural homology with insulin. The natural decline in blood IGF-1 level during the day of calving is seen with a decrease in GH-dependent IGF-1 secretion and is associated with low dry matter intake. The failure to regain GHR expression during early lactation could possibly lead to a compromised liver function and milk yield. The major oxylipid associated with diseases are related to arachidonic based mediators viz, prostaglandin, leukotrienes and thromboxane. TNF-alpha and IL-1ß are expressed rapidly during the initial stages of infection and have potent pro-inflammatory functions, whereas IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 actively promote the resolution of the inflammatory cascade. Imbalance between the production of reactive oxidative radicals and anti-oxidant metabolites causes oxidative stress in peri-parturient animals. The main substrates of free radical species are DNA, lipids, proteins which progressively increased from late lactation to post parturient period. Several trace minerals and vitamins are involved in the antioxidant defense mechanism and immunity of the animal; vitamin E, selenium, copper, zinc, manganese, iron etc.
Abuelo A, Hernández J, Benedito JL and Castillo C (2013). Oxidative stress index (OSi) as a new tool to assess redox status in dairy cattle during the transition period. Animal 7(8):1374-1378.
Asakuma S, Hiraku O, Kurose Y, Kobayashi S and Terashima Y (2004). Diurnal rhythm of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma leptin levels related to feeding in non-lactating and lactating rats. Journal of Endocrinology 180(2):283-286.
Bannerman DD (2009). Pathogen-dependent induction of cytokines and other soluble inflammatory mediators during intramammary infection of dairy cows. Journal Animal Science 87(Suppl):10-25.
Bauman DE (2000). Regulation of nutrient partitioning during lactation: homeostasis and homeorhesis revisited. Ruminant physiology: digestion, metabolism, growth and reproduction 311-328.
Bauman DE and Currie WB (1980). Partitioning of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation: a review of mechanisms involving homeostasis and homeorhesis. Journal of Dairy Animals 63(9):1514-1529.
Beam SW and Butler WR (1997). Energy balance and ovarian follicle development prior to the first ovulation postpartum in dairy cows receiving three levels of dietary fat. Biology of Reproduction 56(1):133-142.
Bell AW (1995). Regulation of organic nutrient metabolism during transition from late pregnancy to early lactation. Journal of Animal Science73:2804-2819.
Berge AC and Vertenten G (2014). A field study to determine the prevalence, dairy herd management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science 97(4):2145-2154.
Bernabucci U, Ronchi B, Lacetera N and Nardone A (2005). Influence of body condition score on relationships between metabolic status and oxidative stress in periparturient dairy cows. Journal Dairy Science 88:2017-2026.
Bertoni G, Trevisi E, Han X and Bionaz M (2008). Effects of inflammatory conditions on liver activity in puerperium period and consequences for performance in dairy cows. Journal Dairy Science 91:3300-3310.
Bhat SV Vasudhar, Shynu M, Anisha JP, Keerthy KK and Divya PD (2019). Assessment of negative energy balance, inflammation and acute phase response in transition dairy cows. Ruminant Science 8(1):27-29.
Bionaz M, Trevisi E, Calamari LUIGI, Librandi F, Ferrari A and Bertoni G (2007). Plasma paraoxonase, health, inflammatory conditions, and liver function in transition dairy cows. Journal Dairy Science 90(4):1740-1750.
Block S, Butler S, Ehrhardt WR, Bell RA, Van AW, Amburgh ME and Boisclair YR (2001). Decreased concentration of plasma leptin in periparturient dairy cows is caused by negative energy balance. Journal of Endocrinology 171(2):339-348.
Braw-Tal R, Pen S and Roth Z (2009). Ovarian cysts in high-yielding dairy cows. Theriogenology 72(5):690-698.
Breier BH (1999). Regulation of protein and energy metabolism by somatotropicaxis. Domestic Animal of Endocrinology 17:09-218.
Buczynski MW, Dumlao DS and Dennis EA (2009). Proteomics. An integrated omics analysis of eicosanoid biology. Journal of Lipid Research 50(6):1015-1038.
Cao Y, Maddox JF, Mastro AM, Scholz RW, Hildenbrandt G and Reddy CC (1992). Selenium deficiency alters the lipoxygenase pathway and mitogenic response in bovine lymphocytes. Journal of Nutrition 122:2121-2127.
Cebra CK, Heidel JR, Crisman RO and Stang BV (2003).The relationship between endogenous cortisol, blood micronutrients, and neutrophil function in postparturient Holstein cows. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 17:902-907.
Chapwanya A, Meade KG, Doherty ML, Callanan JJ, Mee JF and O’Farrelly C (2009). Histopathological and molecular evaluation of Holstein-Friesian cows postpartum: toward an improved understanding of uterine innate immunity. Theriogenology 71:1396-1407.
Chilliard Y, Delavaud C and Bonnet M (2005). Leptin expression in ruminants: nutritional and physiological regulations in relation with energy metabolism. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 29(1):3-22.
Choudhary ML, Kumar V, Goswami SC, Kumar V, Dedar R and Mishra G (2020). Effect of supplementation of vitamin E and chromium on somatic cell count and immunoglobulin content in milk of Sahiwal cattle. Ruminant Science 9(2):333-336.
Clemmons DR (2004). Role of insulin-like growth factor in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis. Hormone Research in Paediatrics 62(Suppl 1):77-82.
Contreras GA, Kirkwood RN and Sordillo LM (2013). Mononuclear leukocyte fatty acid composition and inflammatory phenotype in periparturient and lactating sows. Journal of Animal Science 91(1):174-187.
Contreras GA, Mattmiller SA, Raphael W, Gandy JC and Sordillo LM (2012). Enhanced n-3 phospholipid content reduces inflammatory responses in bovine endothelial cells. Journal Dairy Science 95:7137-7150.
Dann HM, Litherland NB, Underwood JP, BionazMD’angelo, A McFadden JW and Drackley JK (2006). Diets during far-off and close-up dry periods affect periparturient metabolism and lactation in multiparous cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89(9):3563-3577.
Dantzer R and Kelley KW (2007). Twenty years of research on cytokine-induced sickness behaviour. Brain Behavior Immunity 21(2):153-160.
Dyer CJ, Simmons JM, Matteri RL and Keisler DH (1997). Leptin receptor mRNA is expressed in ewe anterior pituitary and adipose tissues and is differentially expressed in hypothalamic regions of well-fed and feed-restricted ewes. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 14(2):119-128.
Edin ML, Wang Z, Bradbury JA, Graves JP, Lih FB, DeGraff LM and Zeldin DC (2011). Endothelial expression of human cytochrome P450 epoxygenase CYP2C8 increases susceptibility to ischemia reperfusion injury in isolated mouse heart. FASEB Journal 25(10):3436-3447.
Ehrhardt RA, Slepetis RM, Bell AW and Boisclair YR (2001). Maternal leptin is elevated during pregnancy in sheep. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 21(2):85-96.
El-Deeb WM and El-Bahr SM (2017). Biomarkers of ketosis in dairy cows at postparturient period: acute-phase proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Veterinarski Arhiv 87(4):431-440.
Forhead AJ, Thomas L, Crabtree J, Hoggard N, Gardner DS, Giussani DA and Fowden AL (2002). Plasma leptin concentration in fetal sheep during late gestation: Ontogeny and effect of glucocorticoids. Endocrinology 143(4):1166-1173.
Gabbs M, Leng S, Devassy JG, Monirujjaman M and Aukema HM (2015). Advances in our understanding of oxylipins derived from dietary PUFAs. Advances in Nutrition 6(5): 513-540.
Gasparini C and Feldmann M (2012). NF-kappa B as a target for modulating inflammatory responses. Current Pharmaceutical Design 18:5735-5745.
Goldhawk C, Chapinal N, Veira DM, Weary DM and Von Keyserlingk MAG (2009). Prepartum feeding behavior is an early indicator of subclinical ketosis. Journal of Dairy Science 92(10):4971-4977.
Grummer RR, Mashek DG and Hayirli A (2004). Dry matter intake and energy balance in the transition period. Veterinary Clinics North America Food Animal Practice 20(3):447-470
Halliwell B (2007). Biochemistry of oxidative stress. Biochemical Society Transaction 35:1147-1150.
Halliwell B and Gutteridge JM (2015). Freeradicals in Biology and Medicine. Oxford university press, USA.
Hauser SD, McGrath MF, Collier RJ and Krivi GG (1990). Cloning and in vivo expression of bovine growth hormone receptor mRNA. Molecular Cell Endocrinology 72:187-200.
Hayajneh FMF (2014). Plasma ascorbic acid levels in sheep infected with hydated cyst. Merit Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Sciences 2(9):111-113.
Hayirli A, Grummer RR, Nordheim EV and Crump PM (2002). Animal and dietary factors affecting feed intake during the prefresh transition period in Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science 85(12):3430-3443.
Huzzey JM, Duffield TF, LeBlanc SJ, Veira DM, Weary DM and Von Keyserlingk MAG (2009). Haptoglobin as an early indicator of metritis. Journal of Dairy Science 92(2): 621-625
Ingvartsen KL (2006). Feeding-and management-related diseases in the transition cow: physiological adaptations around calving and strategies to reduce feeding-related diseases. Animal Feed Science Technology 126:175-213.
Jang M, Mistry A, Swick AG and Romsos DR (2000). Leptin rapidly inhibits hypothalamic neuropeptide Y secretion and stimulates corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion in adrenalectomized mice. Journal of Nutrition 130(11):2813-2820.
Kadyan Sagar, Gulati HK, Oshin, Kumar Sushil and Sihag Sajjan (2020). Effect of ß-carotene supplementation on haemato-biochemical parameters and reproductive traits of Murrah buffaloes. Ruminant Science 9(2):345-349.
Kafi M, Mirzaei A, Tamadon A and Saeb M (2012). Factors affecting the occurrence of postpartum prolonged luteal activity in clinically healthy high-producing dairy cows. Theriogenology 77(2):421-429.
Kataria N and Kataria AK (2012). Evaluation of health status by serum metabolic profiling in Rathi cows with some disorders. Ruminant Science 1(2):131-135.
Knapp JR, Freetly HC, Reis BL, Calvert CC and Baldwin RL (1992). Effects of somatotropin and substrates on patterns of liver metabolism in lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 75:1025-1035.
Kobayashi Y, Boyd CK, Bracken CJ, Lamberson WR, Keisler DH and Lucy MC (1999). Reduced growth hormone receptor (GHR) messenger RNA in liver of periparturient cattle is caused by a specific down regulation of GHR 1A that is associated with decreased insulin-like growth factor-I. Endocrinology 140:3947-3954.
Kuhn MJ, Mavangira V, Gandy JC, Zhang C, Jones AD and Sordillo LM (2017). Differences in the oxylipid profiles of bovine milk and plasma at different stages of lactation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65(24):4980-4988.
Leury BJ, Baumgard LH, Block SS, Segoale N, Ehrhardt RA, Rhoads RP and Boisclair YR (2003). Effect of insulin and growth hormone on plasma leptin in periparturient dairy cows. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 285(5):R1107-R1115.
Liang Y, ZhouY and Shen P (2004). NF-kappaB and its regulation on the immune system. Cellular and Molecular Immunology 1:343-350.
Liefers SC, Veerkamp RF, Te Pas MFW, Chilliard Y and Van der Lende T (2005). Genetics and physiology of leptin in periparturient dairy cows. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 29(1):227-238.
Lucy MC, Jiang H and Kobayashi Y (2001). Changes in the somatotrophic axis associated with the initiation of lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 84:E113-E119.
Madushanka DNN, Ranasingha VM, Bandara AMS, Mayurawansha WRAS and Magamage MPS (2016). Body condition score and locomotion score help to predict reproductive and health performances of dairy cattle. Ruminant Science 5(2):179-186.
MateusL, Lopes da Costa L, Bernardo F and Robalo Silva J (2002). Influence of puerperal uterine infection on uterine involution and postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 37(1):31-35.
Mavangira V and Sordillo LM (2018). Role of lipid mediators in the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in dairy cattle. Research in Veterinary Science 116:4-14.
Mavangira V, Gandy JC, Zhang C, Ryman VE, Daniel Jones A and Sordillo LM (2015). Polyunsaturated fatty acids influence differential biosynthesis of oxylipids and other lipid mediators during bovine coliform mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 98:6202-6215.
McArt JAA, Nydam DV and Oetzel GR (2013). Dry period and parturient predictors of early lactation hyperketonemia in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 96(1):198-209.
McGuire MA, Vicini JL, Bauman DE and Veenhuizen JJ (1992). Insulin-like growth factors and binding proteins in ruminants and their nutritional regulation. Journal of Animal Science 70:2901-2910.
NRC-National Research Council (2001). Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle, seventh revised ed, National Academic Press, Washington, DC, USA
Pandey V, Nigam R, Rambachan PS, Singh SP and Madan AK (2016). Plasma leptin and biochemical profile around parturition in primiparous Sahiwal cows. Ruminant Science 5(2):227-33.
Petroff MG, Petroff BK and Pate JL (2001). Mechanisms of cytokine-induced death of cultured bovine luteal cells. Reproduction Cambridge 121(5):753-760.
Pocius PA and Herbein JH (1986).Effects of in vivo administration of growth hormone on milk production and in vitro hepatic metabolism in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 69:713-720.
Politis I, Hidiroglou M, Batra TR, Gilmore JR, Gorewit RC and Scherf H (1995). Effects of vitamin E on immune function of dairy cows. American Journal of Veterinary Research 56: 179-184.
Politis I, Hidiroglou N, White JH, Gilmore JA, Williams SN and Scherf H (1996). Effects of vitamin E on mammary and blood leukocyte function, with emphasis on chemotoxis, in periparturient dairy cows. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57:468-471.
Purohit GN, Ruhil Swati, Daga Mamta, Gaur M, Bihani DK and Ahuja Anil (2014). Parturition related metabolic disorders in buffaloes: A 10 year case analysis. Ruminant Science 3(2):241-244.
Rambachan, Nigam Rajesh, Pandey Vijay, Singh SP, Sharma Deepak, Tiwari Madhu and Chaudhary Soumen (2019). Variations in circulating adipocytokine and lipid profile during periparturient period in primiparous Haryana cows. Ruminant Science 8(1):31-34.
Ramsden CE, Ringel A, Feldstein AE, Taha AY, MacIntosh BA, Hibbeln JR and Mann JD (2012). Lowering dietary linoleic acid reduces bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites in humans. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 87(4-5):135-141.
Raphael W, Halbert L, Contreras GA and Sordillo LM (2014). Association between polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived oxylipid biosynthesis and leukocyte inflammatory marker expression in periparturient dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 97(6):3615-3625.
Ronge H, Blum J, Clement C, Jans F, Leuenberger H and Binder H (1988). Somatomedin C in dairy cows related to energy and protein supply and to milk production. Animal Production 47:165-183.
Ryman VE, Pighetti GM, Lippolis JD, Gandy JC, Applegate CM and Sordillo LM (2015). Quantification of bovine oxylipids during intramammary Streptococcus uberis infection. Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators 121:207-217.
Seeber RM, Smith JT and Waddell BJ (2002). Plasma leptin-binding activity and hypothalamic leptin receptor expression during pregnancy and lactation in the rat. Biology of Reproduction 66(6):1762-1767.
Serhan CN (2008). Systems approach with inflammatory exudates uncovers novel anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediators. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 79(3-5):157-163.
Sheldon I, Rycroft A and Zhou C (2004). Association between postpartum pyrexia and uterine bacterial infection in dairy cattle. Veterinary Record 154:289-293.
Sina M, Dirandeh E, Deldar H and Shohreh B (2018). Inflammatory status and its relationships with different patterns of postpartum luteal activity and reproductive performance in early lactating Holstein cows. Theriogenology 108:262-268.
Singh Alok and Verma Diwakar (2021). Appraisal of serum metabolites and assorted immune oxidative parameters during transition period in goats of central India. Ruminant Science 10(1):49-56.
Singh Rana Ranjeet, Dubey Piyush, Choudhary SS, Kumar Amit, Patel NB and Singh VK (2017). Influence of body condition score on milk yield and reproduction parameters in Surti buffaloes. Ruminant Science 6(1):99-102.
Sordillo LM (2018). Symposium review: Oxylipids and the regulation of bovine mammary inflammatory responses. Journal of Dairy Science 101(6):5629-5641.
Sordillo LM and Aitken SL (2009). Impact of oxidative stress on the health and immune function of dairy cattle. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 128(1-3):104-109.
Spicer LJ andAlpizar E (1994). Effects of cytokines on FSH-induced estradiol production by bovine granulosa cells in vitro: dependence on size of follicle. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 11(1):25-34.
Stengärde L, Hultgren J, Tråvén M, Holtenius K and Emanuelson U (2012). Risk factors for displaced abomasum or ketosis in Swedish dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 103(4):280-286.
Trayhurn P and Bing C (2006). Appetite and energy balance signals from adipocytes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 361(1471):1237-1249.
Vala KB, Dhami AJ, Raval RJ, Vijyeta HP, Parikh SS and Patel JS (2018). Influence of various factors around parturition on uterine involution and post partum fertility in Jaffarabadi buffaloes. Ruminant Science 7(2):275-278.
Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M and Telser J (2007). Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 39(1):44-84.
Vanholder T, Papen J, Bemers R, Vertenten G and Berge ACB (2015). Risk factors for subclinical and clinical ketosis and association with production parameters in dairy cows in the Netherlands. Journal of Dairy Science 98(2):880-888.
Vernunft A, Viergutz T, Plinski C and Weitzel JM (2014). Postpartum levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha in plasma and milk phospholipid fractions as biomarker of oxidative stress in first-lactating dairy cows. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediator 112:34-38.
Wang Y, Armando AM, Quehenberger O, Yan C and Dennis EA (2014). Comprehensive ultra-performance liquid chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric analysis of eicosanoid metabolites in human samples. Journal Chromatography A 1359:60-69
Westphal C, Konkel A and Schunck WH (2015). Cytochrome p 450 enzymes in the bioactivation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their role in cardiovascular disease. Monooxygenase, Peroxidase and Peroxygenase Properties and Mechanisms of Cytochrome P 450:151-187.
Yang FL and Li XS (2015). Role of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements in mastitis in dairy cows. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research 2(1):1-9.
Zia S, Giri SN, Cullor J, Emau P, Osburn BI and Bushnell RB (1987). Role of eicosanoids, histamine and serotonin in the pathogenesis of Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced bovine mastitis. American Journal Veterinary Research 48:1617-1625.