10-Title: Histomorphological studies on the thyroid gland of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius)

10-Title: Histomorphological studies on the thyroid gland of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors: Devendra Singh and Sanjeev Joshi

Source: Ruminant Science (2021)-10(2):293-302.

How to cite this manuscript: Singh Devendra and Joshi Sanjeev (2021). Histomorphological studies on the thyroid gland of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Ruminant Science 10(2):293-302.


The present study aims to highlight the histomorphological features of the thyroid gland in camels. Thyroid glands were collected from naturally died sixteen camels (n=16) of both sexes from the Veterinary Clinical Complex of the college. The thyroid gland was encapsulated by a thin capsule of collagenous connective tissue, with reticular fibres, few elastic fibres and some fibroblasts. The trabeculae were fibrous connective tissue strands that emerged from the capsule and travelled into the parenchyma towards the centre and divided the gland into lobules. Thyroid follicles varied in size and shape, usually round to oval, but a varying number of irregular follicles were also found. The follicles were lined by cells varying from cuboidal to low columnar epithelium, had spherical to oval nuclei, which occupied a greater proportion of cell cytoplasm. The parafollicular cells or “C” cells were found among the follicular cells and between the interfollicular connective tissue. The quantity of the colloid in follicles was variable according to their activity. The solid cell nests  (SCNs) were composed of solid nests of polygonal or elongated cells with abundant cytoplasm. There were a few follicles and lobules in the isthmus. It can be concluded that the histomorphological anatomy of the thyroid gland resembles to other domestic and wild animals discussed in the manuscript with few anatomical variations.


Abdel-Magied EM, Taha AA and Abdalla AB (2000). Light and electron microscopic study of the thyroid gland of the camel (Camelus dromedarius). Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 29(6):331-336.

Abubakar UM (2015). Anatomical Studies on Thyroid, Parathyroid and Adrenal Glands of Indigenous One-Humped Camel. MSc Thesis submitted to Department Of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. pp 45-79.

Ahmadpanahi SJ (2019). Presence of the parafollicular cells in the thyroid gland of the one-humped camel. Acta Veterinaria Eurasia 45:37-41.

Ahmed YF, Mahmoud KGM, Kandiel MMM, Nawito MF and AbdelRazik AMA (2016). Histomorphometry aspect of the thyroid gland and biochemical profile in pregnant and non-pregnant dromedary camels. African Journal of Biotechnology 15(10):370-375.

Al-Baghdadi FAK (1964). The thyroid gland of camel. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin 16:1004-1012.

Atoji Y, Yamamoto Y, Suzuki Y and Sayed R (1999). Ultrastructure of the thyroid gland of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 28(1): 23–26.

Baishya G, Bhattacharya M, Talukdar SR and Kalita SN (1991). Morphology of the thyroid gland and oxidoreductases in the liver of mithuns (Bos frontalis) and yaks (Ros grunniens). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 68(2):111-114.

Banks WJ (1993). Applied Veterinary Histology. 3rd Edn, Mosby-Year Book, Inc. USA. pp 414-415.

Bello A, Onyeanusi BI, Sonfoda ML, Adeyanju JB, Umaru MA and Onu JE (2015). A sex related changes of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) thyroid gland: A histomorphological study. MOJ Anatomy and Physiology 1(3):1-3.

Boswell T, Woods SC and Kenagy GJ (1994). Seasonal changes in body mass, insulin, and glucocorticoids of free living Golden-Mantled Ground Squirrels. General and Comparative Endocrinology 96(3):339-346.

Das LN, Mishra DB and Biswal G (1965). Comparative histological study of adrenal & thyroid glands of the bull and the bullock. Indian Veterinary Journal 42:824 -830.

Frandson RD (2003). Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals. 6th Edn, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. pp 195-197.

Ganong WF (2005). Review of Medical Physiology. 28th Edn, Alange Medical Company London. pp 955-969.

Humason GL and Lushbaugh CC (1960). Selective Demonstration of Elastin, Reticulum and Collagen by Silver, Orcein and Aniline Blue. Stain Technology 35(4): 209-213.

Hussin AM and Muntadhar MA (2009). Histological study of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in Iraqi buffalo with referring to the seasonal changes. Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research 8(1):26.

Igbokwe CO and Ezeasor DN (2015). Histologic and ultrastructural observations on the thyroid gland of the white fulani (zebu) cattle in northern Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 14(2):156-166.

Igwenagu E, Usende IL, Maina MM, Saidu AM, Aina OO, Waziri A, Monguno MB, Omeh IJ and Aji TG (2016). Gross, Histological and histomorphometric studies on the thyroid gland of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) found in the Semi-Arid Region of North Eastern Nigeria. Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(2):64-71.

Iman MK and Ali AMS (2017). Comparative histomorphological and histochemical study of the thyroid gland in adult indigenous gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) and sheep (Ovis aries). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 5(6):1236-1241.

Jarrar B and Faye B (2013). Normal Pattern of Camel Histology. FAO Publications, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. p 140.

Jelinek F, Krabaaova I and Kroupova V (2003). Assessment of functional activity of the bovine thyroid gland using morphometry and two markers of cellular proliferation. Acta Veterinaria Brno 72:11-16.

Joshi Sanjeev and Mathur Rakesh (2015). Gross anatomical studies on the thyroid gland of goat. Ruminant Science 4(2):153-156.

Joshi S and Mathur R (2016). Light microscopic studies on the thyroid gland of goat. Ruminant Science 5(1):25-28.

Kausar R and Shahid RU (2006). Gross and microscopic anatomy of thyroid gland of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Pakistan Veterinary Journal 26(2):88-90.

Kour S, Devi Jonali, Kour K and Chakraborty D (2014). Effect of thermal stress on thyroid hormone and cortisol levels in goat. Ruminant Science 3(1):71-74.

Kratochvil P (1998). Morphological and functional changes of the thyroid gland in different breeding conditions. Dissertation, ZF JU v Ceskych Budejovich, Ceske Budejovice (in Czech).

Luna LG (1968). Manual of Histological Staining Methods of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. 3rd Edn, McGrew Hill Book, Co. Newyork. pp 153-173.

Maala CP and Reynoso LV (1987). Some histological and histochemical features of the thyroid gland and its isthmus in the Philippine carabao (Bubalus Bubalis). Philippine Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 13(1):45-49.

Machado-Santos C, Teixeira MJ, Sales A and Abidufigueiredo M (2013). Histological and immunohistochemical study of the thyroid gland of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris). Acta Scientiarum: Biological Sciences, Maringa 35(4):585-589.

Mathur ML (1971). Microscopic study of the thyroid gland of the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). American Journal of Veterinary Research 32(2):363-365.

Menaka R, Vyas KN and Chaurasia S (2017). Histochemical studies of thyroid gland in prenatal  development of Surti goat foetuses. Ruminant Science 6(2):259-261.

Nabi N, Baba MA, Qadir A and Sarma K (2018). Sex related and seasonal variations in histomorphological, micrometrical and histochemical architecture of the stromal elements and follicular epithelium of the thyroid gland in local sheep of Kashmir. Veterinary Practitioner 19:48-51.

Nabi Neelofar, Baba MA, Taziyun, Sarma Kamal and Quadir Ajaz (2017). Studies on seasonal and sexual variation on gross morphology and biometry of the thyroid gland in local sheep (Ovis aries) of Kashmir. Ruminant Science 6(1):39-41.

Okada H and Shigeta Y (1995). “C” cell distribution in ovine thyroid gland. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 24(4):281-284.

Panahi SJ and Yousefi MH (2012). Anatomical and histological study on thyroid gland in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Veterinary Research 67(3):273-278.

Policarpio JF, Ocampo GD, De-Rabia AS and De-Ocampo GD (1997). Biometery and histology of the thyroid gland of Philippine carabao (Bubalus bubalis) and Cross-Breed. Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine 34(1-2):53-64.

Prosser CL (1973). Endocrine Mechanisms in comparative animal physiology. 3rd Edn. pp 858-908.

Rajalakshmi K, Ramesh G, Kumari U, Kannan U, Kumar MS, Sridevi P and Lakkawar AW (2019). Microanatomy of the thyroid gland in sheep (Ovis aries). International Journal of Chemical Studies 7(6):404-415.

Ranjan R, Sharma A, Singh O and Bansal N (2011). Histogenesis of thyroid gland in buffalo. Indian Journal of Animal Science 81(4):377-379.

Reddy KP, Reddy N and Ramakrishna A (1998). Colloid goiter in a bullock. Indian Veterinary Journal 75:652-653.

Rejeb A, Amara A, Matoussi A, Rezeigui H and Sautet J (2011). Anatomical particularity of the thyroid gland of the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius). Revue de Medecine Veterinaire 162(4):177-185.

Roy KS and Yadava CP (1975). Histological and certain histochemical observations on the light cells of the thyroid gland in the Indian buffalo. Indian Journal of Animal Science 45:201-208.

Sanap SM, Mugale RR, Bhosale NS and Mamde CS (1998) Histology of thyroid glands in prepubertal, pubertal and castrated cattle. Indian Veterinary Journal 75(9):813-816.

Sarma Kamal, Kalita SN and Devi J (2019). Studies on biochemical, hormonal and morphological interrelationship of testis, epididymis and thyroid gland from birth to 10 months of age in Assam goats. Ruminant Science 8(1):81-84.

Sarma Kamal, Kalita SN and Devi J (2016). Gross and biometrical study on postnatal development of thyroid gland in Assam goat (Capra hircus). Ruminant Science 5(1):29-32.

Sawicki B, Siuda S and Kasacka I (1992). Microscopic structure of the thyroid gland in the European bison. Acta Theriologica 37(1-2):171-179.

Schwartz MW, Seeley RJ, Campfield LA, Burn P and Baskin DG (1996). Identification of targets of leptin action in rat hypothalamus. Journal of Clinical Investigation 98(5):1101-1106.

Singh Devendra and Joshi Sanjeev (2021). Gross and topographical studies on the thyroid gland of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Ruminant Science 10(1):161-164.

Singh UB and Sulochana S (1997). Handbook of Histological and Histochemical Techniques. 2nd Edn, Premier Publishing house, Hyderabad.

Sokolowska J, Berczynska J, Poweska A, Rygiel D, Olbrych K and Urbanska K (2018). Immunohistochemical characteristic of C cells in European bison thyroid gland. Folia Histochemica Et Cytobiologica 56(4):222-230.

Talukdar SR and Bordoloi CC (1996). Gross and histological study on the thyroid gland of a week old rhino calf (Rhinoceros Unicornis). Indian Veterinary Journal 73:85-87.

Trautmann A and Fiebiger J (2002). Fundamentals of the Histology of Domestic Animals. Greenworld Publishers. pp 137-139.

Wang R (2009). Histological observation of thyroid gland, parathyroid gland and adrenal gland in the yak (Bos grunniens). Master’s thesis Basic Veterinary Science submitted to Gansu Agricultural University, China.