14-Title: Feeding strategies being adopted during transitional period by dairy farmers of Punjab

14-Title: Feeding strategies being adopted during transitional period by dairy farmers of Punjab

Authors: Niharika Thakur, Parminder Singh and Rajesh Kasrija

Source: Ruminant Science (2022)-11(2):321-330.

How to cite this manuscript: Thakur Niharika, Singh Parminder and Kasrija Rajesh (2022). Feeding strategies being adopted during transitional period by dairy farmers of Punjab. Ruminant Science 11(2):321-330.


The study was undertaken to gauge the knowledge level of dairy farmers of Punjab regarding various feeding strategies being adopted during the transitional period. A total of 250 dairy farmers were selected randomly from various parts of Punjab and were subjected to a structured interview schedule. Out of 250 dairy farmers, 100 medium to large dairy farmers were also purposively selected from five districts namely Barnala, Ferozepur, Hoshiarpur, Muktsar and Tarntaran. Feed samples were also collected from 75 dairy farmers and were subjected to a proximate system of analysis. Results illustrated that 44% farmers fed only 20 Kg green fodder while 79.2% farmers fed wheat straw  (2-4 kg) as a major source of fodder. Further, 45.2% farmers preferred to give self-made feed. Hardly, 14% dairy farmers were aware about DCAD (Dietary Cation Anion Difference), 22% used mineral mixture and 34% used metabolite. Likewise, 63% farmers were not using nausadar (Ammonium Chloride) during the transitional period. Among the transitional diseases, the incidence of anoestrous (59.6%) and mastitis (52%) were found to be high. The majority of the farmers (89%, 84%, 86%, 92%, 74%, 56%, 100%, 90% and 100%) were not aware about the composition of feed ingredients viz. CP (Crude Protein), Fat, Calcium, Phosphorus, Moisture, Energy, RDP/UDP (Rumen Degradable Protein/ Undigestible Protein), Aflatoxin and Fibre respectively. The ideal feed composition was found to be having moisture, total ash, crude protein, fat, NDF (Neutral Detergent Fibre), ADF (Acid Detergent Fibre), calcium and phosphorus in the vicinity of 11%, 10.2%, 23.5%, 8%, 33.5%, 13.5%, 1.3% and 0.6% respectively. It was concluded that the farmers whose feed failed to reach the said range were facing certain transitional problems. The special feed supplementation along with certain anabolites like choline, biotin, niacin, DCAD, nausadar, etc, before calving was found to be among only 12.4% farmers, while after calving was found to be 10.8% and during the dry period was found to be 15.6% which was considered to be very low. Feed supplementation after calving was found to be highly significant with conception rate (p<0.01). The farmers were also enquired about the most common change of ingredients they employ while formulating the transitional feed. The majority of the farmers responded that they increased the level of grains above 35%, use upto 20% mustard and cotton variant cakes, 5% soyabean meal and 5-6% DDGs in the formulation of the feed.


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