17-Title: Studies on assessment of ß-casein variants of Red Kandhari and crossbred cows of Marathwada region
Authors: Pandurang Ghuge, Pranesh Yeotikar, Prabhakar Ghorpade, Satish Gaikwad, Suhas Amrutkar, Makrand Kharwadkar and Laxmikant Pangaonkar
Source: Ruminant Science (2022)-11(2):339-342.
How to cite this manuscript: Ghuge Pandurang, Yeotikar Pranesh, Ghorpade Prabhakar, Gaikwad Satish, Amrutkar Suhas, Kharwadkar Makrand and Pangaonkar Laxmikant (2022). Studies on assessment of ß-casein variants of Red Kandhari and crossbred cows of Marathwada region. Ruminant Science 11(2):339-342.
Milk protein has two components casein and whey protein. Casein is known for its unique property of coagulation at or below pH 4.6, whereas the whey protein is known as a soluble form. Depending on this acid coagulation property, milk protein can be classified as casein and whey protein. Due to limited knowledge of this aspect, many consumers often need clarification and would get problems deciding which milk to consume and for what justified reasons. Many research studies have been targeted at general consumers understanding and justified knowledge about A1 and A2 beta-casein variants present in milk. Genomic DNA was isolated by using a DNA isolation kit from blood samples of Red Kandhari cows (n=30) and Cross bred cows (Holstein Frisian cows crossed with non-descript cows, n=30). The T-ARMS PCR was performed to amplify the ß-Casein (CSN2) gene and PCR products were run on gel electrophoresis and analysis was done by UV transilluminator. Gene and genotype frequencies, the effective number of alleles, the level of heterozygosity, and the polymorphic information content of various genotypes were estimated, and statistical analysis was carried out. Allelic variants of ß-casein at A1A2 locus only allele A2A2 and Allelic variants of beta-casein at A1A2 locus allele A1A1, A1A2, and A2A2.The results of Gene and genotype frequencies of ß-casein variants in Red Kandhari (Group I) and Crossbred cows (Group II) groups were respectively as follows. In Red Kandhari cows, the gene frequency of the A1 allele was zero, and the A2 allele was one, whereas the genotypic frequencies were 0.0(A1A1), 0.0(A1A2), and 1 (A2A2). In Crossbred cows, the gene frequency of the A1 allele was 0.37, and the A2 allele was 0.63, whereas genotypic frequencies were 0.1 (A1A1), 0.53 (A1A2) and 0.37 (A2A2).
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