2-Title: Transarticular application of circular external skeletal fixation system for management of comminuted metacarpal fracture near carpal joint in cattle calves
Authors: Manu Prabh Sharma, Rohit Kumar Sharma, Anil Kumar Bishnoi, Suresh Kumar Palsania, Vilas D and Praveen Bishnoi
Source: Ruminant Science (2022)-11(1):7-14.
How to cite this manuscript: Sharma Manu Prabh, Sharma Rohit Kumar, Bishnoi Anil Kumar, Palsania Suresh Kumar, Vilas D and Bishnoi Praveen (2022). Effect of vaccine modality for foot and mouth disease on immunogenicity and efficacy in Hallikar calves. Ruminant Science 11(1):7-14.
A transarticular application of circular external skeletal fixation system was used to manage severely comminuted fractures of proximal metacarpal bone near the carpal joint in four calves aged 10.25±3.70 months and weighing 92.25±25.32 kg. In all cases, the fracture was repaired with 3-4 ring CESF system by fixing the proximal rings in the distal radius/ulna and the distal rings in the metacarpus. Postoperatively, all the calves were treated with analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics, and the pin tracts and open wound were cleaned and flushed with sterile saline solution containing povidone-iodine and covered with sterile gauze pad soaked in povidone-iodine and cotton padding for protection and to avoid any contamination. All the animals tolerated the fixator well and showed “good (1)” weight bearing in the immediate postoperative period. The fixators were well maintained in three cases except one case in which the fixator and fracture site became unstable and the animal eventually died. The final outcome of weight bearing was excellent (0) to very good (1). There was rapid improvement in weight bearing with carpal joint stiffness after fixator removal. Pin loosening, pin bending and pin tract sepsis were the common complications observed. The mean radiographic healing time was 64±9.07 days. The fractures healed with massive periosteal callus formation. Pin tract osteolysis and periosteal reactions around the insertion and exit points of transcortical pins were observed in all cases. It can be concluded that despite of common complications, transarticular application of circular external skeletal fixation system provides sufficient stabilization for clinical and radiographic healing of comminuted fractures of metacarpal bones near the carpal joint in calves.
Arzt J, Belsham GJ, Lohse L, Bøtner A and Stenfeldt CJM (2018). Transmission of foot-and- Aithal HP, Kinjavdekar P, Amarpal, Pawde AM, Singh GR and Setia HC (2010). Management of tibial fractures using a circular external fixator in two calves. Veterinary Surgery 39(5):621-626.
Aithal HP, Kinjavdekar P, Pawde AM, Dubey P, Kumar R, Tyagi SK and Madhu DN (2019b). Epoxy-pin external skeletal fixation for management of open bone fractures in calves and foals: A review of 32 cases. Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 32(3):257-268.
Aithal HP, Kinjavdekar P, Pawde AM, Singh GR, Hoque M, Maiti SK and Setia HC (2007). Management of fractures near the carpal joint of two calves by transarticular fixation with a circular external fixator. Veterinary Record 161(6):193-198.
Aithal HP, Kinjavdekar P, Amarpal, Pawde AM, Kumar Rohit, Pathak Rekha, Kumar P, Tyagi SK, Dubey P and Madhu DN (2019a). Treatment of open bone fractures using epoxy-pin fixation in small ruminants: A review of 26 cases. Ruminant Science 8(1):103-114.
Aithal HP, Singh GR and Bisht GS (1999). Fractures in dogs: A survey of 402 cases. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 20(1):15-21.
Aithal HP, Singh GR, Hoque M, Maiti SK, Kinjavdekar P, Pawde AM and Setia HC (2004). The use of a circular external skeletal fixation device for the management of long bone osteotomies in large ruminants: an experimental study. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 51(6):284-293.
Akeson WH, Amiel D, Abel MF, Garfin SR and Woo SL (1987). Effects of immobilization on joints. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 21(9):28-37.
Anderson DE and Jean GS (1996). External skeletal fixation in ruminants. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 12(1):117-152.
Bigbie RB, Schumacker J, Swaim SF, Purohit KC, Wright JC (1991). Effect of amnion and yeast cell derivate on second intention healing in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 52:1376.
Bilgili H, Kurum B and Captug O (2008). Use of a circular external skeletal fixator to treat comminuted metacarpal and tibial fractures in six calves. Veterinary Record 163(23):683-687.
Chourasia R, Jawre S, Singh R, Verma Y, Gupta N, Shahi A, Das B and Vandre RK (2019). Comparative evaluation of acrylic and polypropylene bars for external skeletal fixation in bovines. Ruminant Science 8(2):251-256.
Fleming B, Paley D, Kristiansen T and Pope M (1989). A biomechanical analysis of the Ilizarov external fixator. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 241:95-105.
Gangl M, Grulke S, Serteyn D and Touati K (2006). Retrospective study of 99 cases of bone fractures in cattle treated by external coaptation or confinement. Veterinary Record 158(8):264-268.
Gülaydin A and Sarierler M (2018). Treatment of long bone fractures in calves with Ilizarov external fixator. Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 31(5):364-372.
Hammer RRR, Hammerby S and Lindholm B(1985). Accuracy of radiologic assessment of tibial shaft fracture union in humans. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 199:233-238.
Harari J (1992). Complications of external skeletal fixation. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 22(1):99-107.
Kofler J, Wetchy G and Schöffmann G (2014). Transfixation pinning and casting of a comminuted metacarpal fracture in a 870 kg bull. Veterinary Surgery 43(8):1014-1019
Kumar R, Tiwary R, Singh GD and Kumar M (2016). External skeletal fixation for long bone fracture management-A clinical study in 12 bovine calves. Intas Polivet 17(1):1-3.
Kumar Amit, Kumar Adarsh, Tyagi SP, Negi Arvind, Patial Sakshi and Kumar Rohit (2018). Linear type II external skeletal fixation for repair of open mid-diaphyseal fractures of metacarpus in two cow calves. Ruminant Science 7(2):343-344.
Lewis DD, Bronson DG, Cross AR, Welch RD and Kubilis PS (2001). Axial characteristics of circular external skeletal fixator single ring constructs. Veterinary Surgery 30(4):386-394.
Lewis DD, Bronson DG, Samchukov ML, Welch RD and Stallings JT (1998). Biomechanics of circular external skeletal fixation. Veterinary Surgery 27(5):454-464.
Lewis DD, Radasch RM, Beale BS, Stallings JT, Lanz OI, Welch RD and Samchukov ML (1999). Initial clinical experience with the IMEX™ circular external skeletal fixation system. Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 12(3):108-117.
Marcellin-Little DJ (1999). Fracture treatment with circular external fixation. Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice 29(5):1153-1170.
Nuss K (2014). Plates, pins, and interlocking nails. Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice 30(1), 91-126
Orbay GL, Frankel VH and Kummer FJ (1992). The effect of wire configuration on the stability of the Ilizarov external fixator.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 279:299-302.
Orlandini CF, Alberton LR, Steiner D, Boscarato AG, Martins WDC, Gimenes GC and Belettini ST (2015). Immobilization with modified Thomas splint and synthetic casting for long bone fracture correction in large animals. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae 43(Supplement).
Özsoy S and Altunatmaz K (2003). Treatment of extremity fractures in dogs using external fixators with closed reduction and limited open approach. Veterinarni Medicina 48(5):133-140.
Palsania Suresh Kumar, Bishnoi P, Palecha S and Bishnoi AK (2021). Complications associated with linear external skeletal fixation system in cattle. Ruminant Science 10(2):465-470.
Patel TP, Mistry JN, Panchal KN, Patel PB and Patel JB (2013). Clinical and radiographic evaluation of Jalaram Assembly for tibia fracture fixation in cattle. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery, 34(2):102-106
Raghunath M, Singh SS, Saini NS and Prabhakar V (2013). Instrumentation and technique of intramedullary interlocking nailing in calves. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 34(2):145-147.
Rapoff AJ, Markel MD and Vanderby JrR (1995). Mechanical evaluation of transosseous wire rope configurations in a large animal external fixator. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 56(5):694.
Rawat Tushar, Akash, Kumar Rohit, Singh Mohar, Bisht Dipanshu, Kinjavdekar Prakash, Saxena AC and Amarpal (2020). Management of compound long bone fractures by free form external skeletal fixation using epoxy putty in bovine calves: A review of 20 cases. Ruminant Science 9(1):159-167.
Sahu Swarupananda, Shah MA, Sarangom SB, Kallianpur Nitesh, Shivaraju S, Raghuvanshi PDS and Kumar Naveen (2018). Use of plate-rod construct for repair of complex mid diaphyseal tibial fracture in a buffalo calf. Ruminant Science 7(1):155-156.
Singh H (2017). A study on the external skeletal fixation of fractures in animals. MVSc Thesis, CSKHPKV, Palampur.
Singh J, Singh S and Tyagi RPS (2020). The Musculoskeletal System, Section D. In: Ruminant Surgery. 2nd Edn, CBS Publishers and Distributors Pvt Ltd. pp 465-527.
Yardimci C, Ozak A and Nisbet O (2012). Correction of severe congenital flexural carpal deformities with semicircular external skeletal fixation system in calves. Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 25(6):518-523.