23-Title: Scale to measure the attitude of organic basmati growers cum dairy farmers towards organic dairy farming in subtropics of Jammu region of India
Authors: Pranav Kumar, PS Slathia, R Peshin, RK Sharma, MA Malik, JS Soodan, A Singh and R Kumar
Source: Ruminant Science (2021)-10(1):117-122.
How to cite this manuscript: Kumar Pranav, Slathia PS, Peshin R, Sharma RK, Malik MA, Soodan JS, Singh A and Kumar R (2021). Scale to measure the attitude of organic basmati growers cum dairy farmers towards organic dairy farming in subtropics of Jammu region of India. Ruminant Science 10(1):117-122.
The present study was conducted on 68 statements developed from the subject matter of organic dairy farming based on organic animal husbandry standards worked out by various national and international agencies to develop an attitude scale about organic dairy farming. A total of 41 statements resulted after the edition of 68 statements as per the criteria suggested by Edwards (1969) and were sent to 79 scientists having super specialization in the relevant field to critically evaluate the statements for relevancy. Based on responses received from judges, a total of 30 statements were retained based on relevancy weightage, and these were subjected to item analysis by administering to 60 dairy farmers cum organic basmati growers. A total of 21 statements were selected based on the ‘t’ values (above 1.75) resulted from the item analysis and included in the final scale for calculating reliability and validity. Split-half reliability was calculated using Spearman Brown Prophecy Formula and was found to be 0.88. Internal consistency of the attitude scale was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha () and the value was calculated to be 0.89. The validity of attitude scale was established through content validity. Thus, the instrument developed to measure attitude of farmers towards organic dairy farming representing the various aspects of organic dairy rearing such as conversion period, breeds and breeding aspects, care and management, certification, sustainability, quality of organic products including views of farmers based on their cognitive and affective reactions. The reliability and validity of the scale indicate its precision and consistency. This scale can be used to measure farmers’ attitude beyond the study area with suitable modifications in future.
APEDA (2019). National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP). Available at https://apeda.gov.in/apedawebsite/organic/PresentStatus.htm.
Baron RA and Byrne D (1991). Social Psychology, Understanding Human Interaction. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.
Coombs CH (1950). The concept of reliability and homogeneity. Educational Psychological Measurement 10:33-39.
Crocker L and Algina J (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. Chicago: Holt,
Edwards AL (1969). Techniques of attitude scale construction. Vakils, Feffer and Simons Private Ltd, New York.
Gujar Bharti, Rajput DS, Sharma NK, Goyal TC and Purohit NR (2015). Constraints perceived by livestock owners related to organic animal husbandry practices. Ruminant Science 4(2):195-198.
Gujar Bharti, Rajput DS, Sharma NK, Goyal TC and Mishra Pankaj (2017). Knowledge and adoption level of livestock owners regarding health care practices towards organic animal husbandry management system. Ruminant Science 6(2):355-356.
Gujar Bharti, Rajput DS, Sharma NK and Goyal TC (2020). Knowledge and adoption level of livestock owners on breeding practices under organic animal husbandry management system. Ruminant Science 9(2):329-332.
Garret HE (1966). Statistics in Psychology and Education. Hyderabad, International Book Bureau.
Goforth C (2015). Using and Interpreting Cronbach’s Alpha. Available at https://data.library.virginia.edu/using-and-interpreting-cronbachs-alpha/(accessed on 09-09-2019)
Gronlund NE (1970). Measurement and Evaluation in Teaching. New York, Macmillan Publishing Co.
Kerlinger F (1964). Foundations of Behavioural Research. New York, Holt.
Likert R (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology p 140.
National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP) (2014). Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India.
Reynaldo J and Santos A (1999). Cronbach’s Alpha: A Tool for Assessing the Reliability of Scales. Extension Information Technology 37(2):4432101.
Spearman CC (1910). Correlation calculated from faulty data. British Journal of Psychology 3:271-295
Sharma B (2016). A focus on reliability in developmental research through Cronbach’s Alpha among medical, dental and paramedical professionals. Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences 3(4):271-278
Tavakol M, Mohagheghi MA and Dennick R (2008). Assessing the skills of surgical residents using simulation. Journal of Surgical Education 65(2):77-83
Vyas L and Maheshwari S (2009). Knowledge of the tribal women of Udaipur district regarding vermiculture technology. Tribe 39:68-91.
Yu CH (2001). An introduction to computing and interpreting Cronbach Coefficient Alpha in SAS, Arizona State University. Available at https://www.apu.edu/faculty/cvs/cyu.pdf