26-Title: Intricacy in cross-bred cattle with presumptive lumpy skin disease and prospective antiviral role of ivermectin

26-Title: Intricacy in cross-bred cattle with presumptive lumpy skin disease and prospective antiviral role of ivermectin

Authors: Rashmi Rekha Kumari, Manoj Kumar Tripathi, Ravi Kumar, Prabhas Kumar, Manish Kumar, Abhay Kumar, Kamal Sarma and Pankaj Kumar

Source: Ruminant Science (2021)-10(2):375-382.

How to cite this manuscript: Kumari Rashmi Rekha, Tripathi Manoj Kumar, Kumar Ravi, Kumar Prabhas, Kumar Manish, Kumar Abhay, Sarma Kamal and Kumar Pankaj (2021). Intricacy in cross-bred cattle with presumptive lumpy skin disease and prospective antiviral role of ivermectin. Ruminant Science 10(2):375-382.


Present study was undertaken on 40 cross-bred milch cattle exhibiting presumptive clinical signs of Lumpy skin disease (LSD)  to comprehend the associated intricacies and the feasible antiviral potential of ivermectin based on clinical response. The disease history, clinical signs, and production of animals were recorded. Clinical samples were collected for haemato-biochemical analysis, haemoparasitic examination and skin scraping. Cattle with presumptive LSD were grouped on the parameters of the severity of the animal’s clinical signs and health status in the range of 1+ to 4+. Further, to evaluate the antiviral effect of ivermectin and the modules for treatments, these were grouped into three uneven groups based on Giemsa stained blood smear (GSBS) microscopy results (I, II, III). Data generated were analysed statistically. The presumptive clinical signs of LSD included in the study were high fever, drop in milk yield, inappetence to anorexia, presence of skin lumps, enlargement of peripheral lymph node, etc. Among cattle with presumptive LSD, 15% were infected with mild to moderate Theileria spp., and 10% with Anaplasma marginale. The mortality rate was nil in presumptive LSD affected cattle. The haemoglobin and RBC count values in the cattle with presumptive LSD were lower and non-significantly different among groups. Leukopenia was non-significantly higher in cattle exhibiting greater severity of LSD like signs. The serum biochemical profile inferred muscle and liver damage in these cattle and the viremia influenced serum globulin, albumin and total protein levels. However, non-significant differences were observed between groups. Therapeutic response of ivermectin drug in different groups of cattle with presumptive LSD convey possible antiviral effect with early clinical and production recovery compared to the same module of supportive therapy without ivermectin.


Agag BI, Mousa S, Hassan HB, Saber MS, El-Deghidy NS and El-Aziz AMA (1992). Clinical, serological and biochemical studies on lumpy skin disease. Journal of Applied Animal Research 1(1):13-23.

Babiuk S (2018). Treatment of Lumpy Skin Disease. In: Lumpy Skin Disease. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-92411-3_17

Caly L, Druce JD, Catton MG, Jans DA and Wagstaff KM (2020). The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Antiviral Research 178:104787.

Casal J, Allepuz A, Miteva A, Pite L, Tabakovsky B, Terzievski D, Alexandrov T and Beltrán Alcrudo D (2018) Economic cost of lumpy skin disease outbreaks in three Balkan countries: Albania, Bulgaria and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (2016–2017). Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 65:1680-1688.

Chhaiya SB, Mehta DS and Kataria BC (2012). Ivermectin: pharmacology and therapeutic applications. International Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology 1(3):132-139.

Coles EH (1986). Veterinary Clinical Pathology. WB Saunders company. Philadelphia and London.

Coskun A, Ekici OD, Guzelbektes H, Aydogdu U and Sen I (2012). Acute phase proteins, clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters in dairy cows naturally infected with Anaplasma marginale. Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 18(3):497-502.

Dalis JS, Kazeem HM, Kwaga JK and Kwanashie CN (2019). Prevalence and distribution of dermatophytosis lesions on cattle in Plateau State, Nigeria. Veterinary World 12(9): 1484-1490.

El-Mandrawy SA and Alam RT (2018). Hematological, biochemical and oxidative stress studies of lumpy skin disease virus infection in cattle. Journal of Applied Animal Research 46(1):1073-1077.

Formiga FR, Leblanc R, de Souza Rebouças J, Farias LP, de Oliveira RN and Pena L (2021). Ivermectin: An award-winning drug with expected antiviral activity against COVID-19. Journal of Controlled Release 329:758-761.

Forsyth LM, Minns FC, Kirvar E, Adamson RE, Hall FR, McOrist S, Brown CG and Preston PM (1999). Tissue damage in cattle infected with Theileria annulata accompanied by metastasis of cytokine – producing, schizont – infected mononuclear phagocytes. Journal of Comparative Pathology 120(1):39-57.

Ganguly A, Maharana BR, Ganguly IN, Kumar AN, Potlya S, Arora D and Bisla RS (2018). Molecular diagnosis and haemato-biochemical changes in Anaplasma marginale infected dairy cattle. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 88(9):989-993.

Hamel D, Joachim A, Löwenstein M, Pfister K, Silaghi C, Visser M, Winter R, Yoon S, Cramer L and Rehbein S (2015). Treatment and control of bovine sarcoptic and psoroptic mange infestation with ivermectin long-acting injectable (IVOMEC® GOLD). Parasitology Research 114(2):535-542.

Jain NC (1986). Hematological techniques. In: Schalm’s Veterinary Hematological techniques. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. pp 20-86.

Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW and Bruss ML (1997). Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 5th Edn, Academic Press, San Diego, London, Boston, New York, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto. Apendix VIII: Blood analyse reference values in large animals. pp 890-894.

Kosyna FK, Nagel M, Kluxen L, Kraushaar K and Depping R (2015). The importin alpha/beta-specific inhibitor Ivermectin affects HIF-dependent hypoxia response pathways. Biological Chemistry 396:1357-67.

Kumar P, Kumari RR, Devi S, Tripathi MK, Singh S, Kumar R and Kumar M (2021a). Emergence and transboundary spread of lumpy skin disease in South Asia: A review. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 91(7):507-517.

Kumar P, Kumar P, Roy RK, Kumari RR, Kumar A, Sarma K, Sharma P and Kumar M (2021b). Mixed infection of tick-borne haemo-parasites in water buffalo and associated pathological responses and treatment. Indian Journal Animal Research. Online First on 3.6.2021, DOI: 10.18805/IJAR.B-4450.

Kumar N, Chander Y, Kumar R, Khandelwal N, Riyesh T and Chaudhary K (2021c). Isolation and characterization of lumpy skin disease virus from cattle in India. PLoS One 16(1): e0241022.

Kumar P, Kumari RR, Kumar A, Raman RK, Chandran PC and Kumar M (2020). Status of subclinical mastitis in cross bred cattle of peri-urban unorganized herd of middle Indo-Gangetic Plains. Indian Journal Animal Research. Online First on 12.11.2020, DOI: 10.18805/IJAR.B-4241

Lv C, Liu W, Wang B, Dang R, Qiu L, Ren J, Yan C, Yang Z and Wang X (2018). Ivermectin inhibits DNA polymerase UL42 of pseudorabies virus entrance into the nucleus and proliferation of the virus in vitro and vivo. Antiviral Research 159:55-62.

Neamat-Allah ANF (2015) Immunological, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological studies on cows naturally infected with lumpy skin disease, Veterinary World 8(9): 1131-1136.

OIE (2019). Infection with Lumpy Skin Disease Virus, In: Terrestrial Animal Health Code. In:  Paris: www.oie.int.

Prabhakaran HS, Ghosh KK, Kumari RR, Kumar P and Kumar M (2021). Evaluation of sporozoite and macroschizont antigen (Spm2) of Theileria annulata for its diagnostic potential. Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases 12(4):101691.

Radostits OM, Gay CC, Blood DC and Hinchcliff KW (2000). In: Veterinary Medicine. 9th Edn, WB Saunders, London. pp 1819-1822.

Raza S, Shahin F, Zhai W, Li H, Alvisi G, Yang K, Chen X, Chen Y, Chen J, Hu C, Chen H and Guo A (2020). Ivermectin inhibits bovine herpesvirus 1 DNA polymerase nuclear import and interferes with viral replication. Microorganisms 8(3):E409.

Rizzo E (2020). Ivermectin, antiviral properties and COVID-19: A possible new mechanism of action. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology 393(7):1153-1156.

Salib FA and Osman AH (2011). Incidence of lumpy skin disease among Egyptian cattle in Giza Governorate, Egypt. Veterinary World 4(4):162-167.

Sandhu G S, Grewal AS, Singh A, Kondal J K, Singh J and Brar RS (1998). Haematological and biochemical studies on experimental Theileria annulata infection in cross-bred calves. Veterinary Research Communications 22(5):347-354.

Sevik M, Avci O, Doðan M and Ýnce ÖB (2016). Serum biochemistry of lumpy skin disease virus-infected cattle. BioMed Research International 2:1-6.

Snedecor GW and Cochran WG (1994). Statistical Methods. 8th Edn, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.

Solberg HE (1987). Approved recommendation (1987) on the theory of reference values. Part 5. Statistical treatment of collected reference values. Determination of reference limits. Clinica Chimica Acta 170(2-3):S13-S32.

Sudhakar SB, Mishra N, Kalaiyarasu S, Jhade SK, Hemadri D, Sood R, Bal GC, Nayak MK, Pradhan SK and Singh VP (2020). Lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks in cattle in Odisha state, India in August 2019: Epidemiological features and molecular studies. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 67:2408-2422.

Ugalmugle SS, Jayraw AK and Gatne ML (2010). Prevalence and clinical pathology of bovine tropical theileriosis in cross-bred population of Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 24(2):141-145.

Wagstaff KM, Sivakumaran H, Heaton SM, Harrich D and Jans D A (2012). Ivermectin is a specific inhibitor of importin alpha/beta-mediated nuclear importable to inhibit replication of HIV-1 and dengue virus. Biochemical Journal 443(3):851-856.

Yadav JV, Lakshman M and Madhuri D (2021). A combination of conventional and alternative ethnoveterinary medicine for the treatment of lumpy skin disease in a she-buffalo: A case report. Pharma Innovation Journal 10(1):83-84.