40-Title: Detection of foot and mouth disease virus persistency in exotic cattle and Murrah buffaloes

40-Title: Detection of foot and mouth disease virus persistency in exotic cattle and Murrah buffaloes

Authors: Biswa Ranjan Jena, Ramesh Chandra Patra, Jitendra Kumar Biswal, Ritu Gupta, Rajeev Ranjan, Prasana Kumar Rath, Geeta Rani Jena and Susen Kumar Panda

Source: Ruminant Science (2022)-11(2):459-464.

How to cite this manuscript: Jena Biswa Ranjan, Patra Ramesh Chandra, Biswal Jitendra Kumar, Gupta Ritu, Ranjan Rajeev, Rath Prasana Kumar, Jena Geeta Rani and Panda Susen Kumar (2022). Detection of foot and mouth disease virus persistency in exotic cattle and Murrah buffaloes. Ruminant Science 11(2):459-464.


Foot and Mouth Disease carriers are defined as the animals from which the virus can be recovered from the oro-pharyngeal region at greater than 28 days post-infection, irrespective of vaccination status. Although transmission of the virus from carrier to naïve animals has not been demonstrated in experimental conditions, this virus circulation can be a source of new outbreaks, and also a constraint in getting FMD free status. Therefore, its detection is necessary to make a country FMD free. An indirect-ELISA (IgM I-ELISA) has been developed in ICAR-ICFMD-DFMD to detect FMDV specific IgM antibodies in healthy carrier animals. This assay was used in this study to detect FMD carrier status in apparently healthy Holstein Friesian cow (n=25) and murrah buffaloes (n=3), and Jersey cattle (n=5), in two dairy farms (farm A and B). Whole blood and serum samples were collected for complete blood count and serum biochemical analysis, and serological study. Oro-pharyngeal fluid (OPF) sample was collected using a probang sampling cup for detection of FMDV genome through RT-mPCR. In farm A, 12 cattle were found positive in RT-mPCR whereas 16 cattle were found positive in IgM I-ELISA, and 2 buffaloes were found positive in both the tests. In farm B, 3 cows were found positive in RT-mPCR whereas 4 cattle were found positive in IgM I-ELISA. All the animals, positive in RT-mPCR, were also found positive in IgM I-ELISA. Therefore, the developed assay can be used to rapidly screen a large population of animals for their carrier status and overcomes the limitations of viral genome detection from OPF samples.


Archetti IL, Amadori M, Donn A, Salt J and Lodetti E (1995). Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cattle by assessment of antibody response in oropharyngeal fluids. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 33(1):79-84.

Biswal JK, Jena BR, Ali SZ, Ranjan R, Mohapatra JK and Singh RP (2022). One-step SYBR green-based real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus circulating in India. Virus Genes 58(2):113-121.

Biswal JK, Nardo AD, Taylor G, Paton DJ and Parida S (2021). Development and validation of a mucosal antibody (IgA) test to identify persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus. Viruses 13(5):814.

Chelluboina S, Robin S, Aswathyraj S and Arunkumar G (2019). Persistence of antibody response in chikungunya. Virus Disease 30(3):469-473.

Chien YW, Liu ZH, Tseng FC, Ho TC, Guo HR, Ko NY, Ko WC and Perng GC (2018). Prolonged persistence of IgM against dengue virus detected by commonly used commercial assays. BMC Infectious Diseases 18(1):1-7.

Giridharan P, Hemadri D, Tosh C, Sanyal A and Bandyopadhyay SK (2005). Development and evaluation of a multiplex PCR for differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains native to India. Journal of Virological Methods 126(1-2):1-11.

Griffin I, Martin SW, Fischer M, Chambers TV, Kosoy O, Falise A, Ponomareva O, Gillis LD, Blackmore C and Jean R (2019). Zika virus IgM detection and neutralizing antibody profiles 12-19 months after illness onset. Emerging Infectious Diseases 25(2):299-304.

Inoue K, Yoshiba M, Yotsuyanagi H, Otsuka T, Sekiyama K and Fujita R (1996). Chronic hepatitis A with persistent viral replication. Journal of Medical Virology 50(4):322-324.

Knowles NJ and Samuel AR (2003). Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Virus Research 91(1):65-80.

Manjeet, Pander BL, Magotra Ankit, Sharma R, Dhaka SS, Malik BS and Dev Kapil (2018). Association of foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccine elicited immune response with reproduction and lactation performance traits in Hardhenu (Bos taurus x Bos indicus)  cattle. Ruminant Science 7(1):47-50.

Rashmi L, Ganesh K, Kishore S, Reddy GR and Suryanarayana VVS (2021). Effect of vaccine modality for foot and mouth disease on immunogenicity and efficacy in Hallikar calves. Ruminant Science 10(1):1-8.

Sharma Sanjita, Sharma Vishnu, Mehrotra PK and Karnani Monika (2012). Effect of FMD on haemato-biochemical variations in buffaloes. Ruminant Science 1(2):181-183.

Stenfeldt C and Arzt J (2020). The carrier conundrum; a review of recent advances and persistent gaps regarding the carrier state of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Pathogens 9(3):167.