40-Title: Prognostic factors affecting survival of buffaloes suffering from diaphragmatic hernia

40-Title: Prognostic factors affecting survival of buffaloes suffering from diaphragmatic hernia

Authors: Amandeep Kaur, Pallavi Verma, Tarunbir Singh, Vandana Sangwan and J Mohindroo

Source: Ruminant Science (2021)-10(1):203-208.

How to cite this manuscript: Kaur Amandeep, Verma Pallavi, Singh Tarunbir, Sangwan Vandana and Mohindroo J (2021). Prognostic factors affecting survival of buffaloes suffering from diaphragmatic hernia. Ruminant Science 10(1):203-208.


The present study was carried out to evaluate the extrinsic prognostic factors viz. environmental temperature, duration of illness, stage of pregnancy/calving and intraoperative variables i.e. hernial ring size, extent of herniation, presence of potential foreign bodies, adhesions, time duration of restraint of buffaloes in different recumbencies and total time taken for surgery. A comparison of these factors was made in the surviving and non-surviving animals. It was found that a longer duration of illness (more than 30 days) and greater dehydration increased the surgical risk. Higher ambient temperature accounted to thermal stress. Large hernial ring size (H – 19.81±1.79 cm; W – 22.41±5.66 cm) and greater percentage (50-70%) of reticulum herniation accounted for poor survivability. Herniation of other organs such as liver and spleen along with multiple foreign bodies and adhesions lead to greater mortality. Longer duration of surgery with greater period for which thoracic cavity was opened associated with a longer duration in dorsal recumbency proved fatal for the animals. Besides these, concurrent intraoperative complications such as regurgitation, apnoea and rupture of herniated organs were responsible for poor outcomes following diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy. The study was suggestive that a cascade of factors was responsible in determining the prognosis of buffaloes undergoing diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy and proper steps taken to counter these factors shall greatly reduce the mortality in chronic life-threatening affections.


Athar H, Mohindroo J, Singh K, Raghunath M and Singh T (2012). Clinical, hemato-biochemical findings and surgical management of diaphragmatic hernia in the bovines. Indian Veterinary Journal 89:124-126.

Bisla RS, Singh J and Krishnamurthy D (2002). Assessment of oxidative stress in buffaloes suffering from diaphragmatic hernia. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 23:77-80

Hala AA, Zeina A, Hassan HSG, Sabra HA and Hamam AM (2009). Trials for elevating adverse effect of heat stress in buffaloes with emphasis on metabolic status and fertility. Global Veterinarian 3:51-62

Joshi KN, Patel PB, Suthar BN, Patel BJ, Parmar JJ and Gami MS (2014). Therapeutic evaluation of ascorbic acid and manganese chloride as antioxidants during diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy in buffaloes. Ruminant Science 3(2):237-239.

Khan Z, Muhammad G, Umar A and Khan SA (1995). Preliminary comparison of plasma fibrinogen concentrations, leucocyte numbers and erythrocyte sedimentation rate as non-specific indicators of inflammatory conditions in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Veterinary Research Communications 21:265-271

Kherkar TT, Pitlawar SS, Badgujar CL, Chaudhari KS and Agivale SM (2019). Surgical management of diaphragmatic hernia in a buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) under isoflurane anaesthesia. Ruminant Science 8(1):141-142.

Krishnamurthy D and Peshin P K (1995). Diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy in bovine. Course manual of short course pp 42-43 Organised by Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, College of Veterinary Science, CCS Hisar, from June 14-23.

Krishnamurthy D, Nigam JM, Peshin PK, Sharma DN and Tyagi RPS (1985). Monograph on diaphragmatic hernia in bovines. Directorate of Publications, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, Haryana, India.

Marai IFM and  Haeeb AAM (2010). Buffalo’s biological functions as affected by heat stress: A review. Livestock Science 127:89-109

Patel R (2012). Studies on surgical oxidative stress and prognostic indicators in bovine diaphragmatic hernia. MVSc Thesis, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, India.

Peshin PK, Krishnamurthy D, Singh K, Nassimi MN and Nigam JM (1987). Haemodynamic and blood gas changes in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the supine position following thiopentone anaesthesia with premedication. Veterinary Research Communications 11:1-7.

Purohit S, Sharma Prabha, Raveendra RT, Sharma Chetan, Yadav Atul, Negi Ankit, Reddy PVV, Kaushal Arpit, Kaushal and Pandey RP (2020). Diagnosis and surgical management of different types of hernias in ruminants. Ruminant Science 9(1):173-186.

Sahu A, Chawla SK, Krishnamurthy D, Tayal R, Behl SM and Singh J (2003). Diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy in buffaloes: Clinical evaluation of 72 cases. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 24:33-34.

Sharma Satbir, Kumar Ashok, Tayal Rishi, Chaudhary RN, Tiwari DK and Arora Neeraj (2019). Evaluation of efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate-xylazine-pentazocine-propofol-isoflurane anaesthesia combination in buffaloes undergoing diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy. Ruminant Science 8(1):135-139.

Singh J, Fazili MR, Chawla SK, Tayal R, Behl SM and Singh S (2006). Current status of diaphragmatic hernia in buffaloes with special reference to etiology and treatment: A Review. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 27:73-79.

Singh RK, Kooreman KM, Babbs CF, Fessler JF, Salaris SC and Pham J (1992). Potential use of simple manganese salts as antioxidant drugs in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 53:1822-29.

Sodhi Harmanpreet Singh, Mohindroo J, Sharma Ashwani Kumar, Mahajan Sashi Kant and Verma Pallavi (2019). Clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal tract disorders in bovine. Ruminant Science 8(2):257-262.

Udehiya Rahul Kumar, Singh SS, Mohindroo Jitender, Kumar Ashwani, Raghunath M and Saini NS (2013). Retrospective study on relative efficacy of haemato-biochemical, radiographic and ultrasonographic changes in diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia in bovines. Ruminant Science 2(1):89-95.