49-Title: Ultrasonographic studies of teat in bovine health and disease

49-Title: Ultrasonographic studies of teat in bovine health and disease

Authors: Ravneet, Pallavi Verma, Tarunbir Singh, Ashwani Kumar and Arun Anand

Source: Ruminant Science (2021)-10(2):479-488.

How to cite this manuscript: Ravneet, Verma Pallavi, Singh Tarunbir, Kumar Ashwani and Anand Arun (2021). Ultrasonographic studies of teat in bovine health and disease. Ruminant Science 10(2):479-488.


The present study comprised of ultrasonographic examination of normal (n=60) and diseased (n=60) teats in cows (n=48) and buffaloes (n=12) making a total of 120 teats. All the animals were subjected to real time B-mode, grey scale ultrasonography (USG) using 6 to 12 MHz frequency transducer by direct contact and water bath techniques. Normal teat’s sonoanatomy is comprised of the innermost hyperechoic mucosa followed by the hypoechoic muscular layer and the outermost hyperechoic layer of skin. The lumen of the teat cistern appeared anechoic to hypoechoic clearly distinguishable from the adjacent teat wall. The teat canal was seen as a hypoechoic band surrounded by hyperechoic lines on either side. The transition between teat cistern and teat canal was marked by Rosette of Furstenberg which appeared as a hyperechoic structure bounded by anechoic vessels making the venous ring of the rosette of Furstenberg. Water bath technique provided better visualization of teat cistern, teat canal, teat wall thickness, teat diameter at the area and 1.5 cm proximal to Rosette of Furstenberg. In diseased teat ultrasonographic diagnosis of the teat, lesions included intraluminal fibrosis at various levels of teat, foreign bodies, lacerations, fistulae, congenital anomalies such as imperforated teats, supernumerary teats and teat spider.



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