5-Title: Effect of non-genetic factors on the production performance traits in Gir cattle

5-Title: Effect of non-genetic factors on the production performance traits in Gir cattle

Authors: Oshin Togla, Shivam Bhardwaj, Nistha Yadav, Shilpa Gujral, Yaser Mushtaq Wani, Ishmeet Kumar and Anupama Mukherjee

Source: Ruminant Science (2021)-10(2):265-270.

How to cite this manuscript: Togla Oshin, Bhardwaj Shivam, Yadav Nistha, Gujral Shilpa, Wani Yaser Mushtaq, Kumar Ishmeet and Mukherjee Anupama (2021). Effect of non-genetic factors on the production performance traits in Gir cattle. Ruminant Science 10(2):265-270.


The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the effect of non-genetic factors affecting the production traits of Gir cattle. Data representing 271 records of 305 days milk yield (305-d MY), 294 records of lactation length (LL), 270 records of days in milk (DIM) and 192 records of Calving interval (CI), spread over a period of 6 years (2015- 2021) were analysed to determine the effects of period of calving, season of calving and parity. Analysis was performed with least-squares methods using the general linear model procedures including the above non-genetic factors as fixed effects. The overall least square mean of 305-d MY, DIM, LL and CI were 1122.68±68.49 kgs, 196.10±15.93, 213.23±7.51 and 506.04±41.94, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed that Parity and Period of calving were significant factors affecting LL, DIM and 305-d MY while Season of calving variations did not show any significant effect on any trait. The effects of considered non-genetic factors were non-significant for CI. The results indicate that considerable variation exists in the production traits of resource cattle herds caused by non-genetic factors. Therefore, it is suggested to consider these factors as a management tool before the genetic evaluation of the resource population.


Afzal M, Anwar M and Mirza M A (2007). Some factors affecting milk yield and lactation length in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 27(3):113.

Aksoy AR (1995). Milk yield of Swiss Brown and Simmental cows in kars goose raising Station. Yüzüncü Yýl Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 6:55-57.

Amimo JO, Wakhungu JW, Inyangala BO and Mosi RO (2007). The effects of non-genetic factors and estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends for milk yield in Ayrshire cattle in Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development 19:13.

Auradkar SK (1999). Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting production and reproduction performance of crossbred cows (Friesian×Sahiwal). PhD Dissertation submitted to Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani.

Bayou E, Haile A, Gizaw S and Mekasha Y (2015). Evaluation of non-genetic factors affecting calf growth, reproductive performance and milk yield of traditionally managed Sheko cattle in southwest Ethiopia. Springer Plus 4(1):1-17.

Bhutkar SS, Thombre BM and Bainwad DV (2014). Effect of non-genetic factors on production traits in Deoni cows. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 7(12):09-14.

Chakravarthi MK, Sasidhar PVK and Reddy YR (2002). Productive and reproductive performance of Deoni cattle. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 55(1): 56-57.

Çilek S and Tekin ME (2005). Environmental factors affecting milk yield and fertility traits of Simmental cows raised at the Kazova state farm and phenotypic correlations between these traits. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 29:987-993.

Dhaware SA, Deshpande KS, Thombre BM, Deshmukhand DS and Chauhan DS (2008). Factors affecting productive and reproductive traits in Khillar breed of cattle in Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Animal Research 42(1)57-59.

Dhumal MV, Butte SV and Haytnagarkar DD (1993). Non-genetic factors affecting lactation milk yield and lactation length of Deoni cattle. Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management 9(2-3):135137.

Dongre VB, Kokate LS, Salunke VM, Jadhav PV, Khandait VN, Durge SM and Patil PV (2017). Effect of non-genetic factors on production and reproduction traits in Deoni cattle. International Journal of Livestock Research 7(9):220-225.

Dongre V, Gandhi R S and Singh A (2012). Comparison of different lactation curve models in Sahiwal cows. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 36(6):723-726.

El-keraby F and Aboul-Ela M B (1982). A study of some non-genetic factors affecting postpartum reproductive performance in Friesian cows. Tropical Animal Production 7:307-314.

Firman A, Paturochman M, Budimulyati SL, Hadiana MH, Tasripin D, Suwartapradja OS and Munandar M (2019). Succession decisions in Indonesia family dairy farm business. Livestock Research and Rural Development 31:(9).

Gadmade SS (1999). Studies on factors affecting performance of Tharparkar, Jersey and Jersey×Tharparkar crossbred cows. MVSc Thesis submitted to Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani.

Gandhi R S and Gurnani M (1990). Breeding efficiency and producing ability as contrasting traits in Sahiwal cows. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 60(4):482-485.

Hadisutanto (2008). Effect of parity parent on the performance of fries holland dairy cattle. Bandung.

Hare E, Norman HD and Wright JR (2006). Trends in calving ages and calving intervals for dairy cattle breeds in the United States. Journal of Dairy Science 89:365-370.

Harvey WR (1990). User’s Guide for LSML-MW and MIXMDL-Package; Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum likelihood Computer Programme PC-2 Version, Mimegraph, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Kannan DS and Gandhi RS (2004) Influence of non-genetic factors on lifetime traits in Sahiwal cattle. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 57(3):185-187.

Katkade BS, Vaidya MS, Lokhande DU, Ingole SD, Ramteke BN, Bhoite UV, Patil CS and Sawane MP (2021). Effect of non-genetic and genetic factors on lifetime milk yield and herd life in Gir crossbred cattle. Ruminant Science 10(1):19-24.

Kumar KD, Reddy CE, Gupta BR and Satyanarayana A (2003). Effect of year, season and lactation order on the performance of Ongole cattle. Indian Journal of Animal Science 73(11):1289-1290.

Kumar Sumit, Goel R, Sharma Deepak and Tiwari Madhu (2013). First lactation performance of Sahiwal in the region of northern India. Ruminant Science 2(1):77-79.

Kumar Sumit, Kumar Vijay and Chakravarty AK (2014). Effect of non-genetic factors on first lactation test day milk yield in murrah buffaloes. Ruminant Science 3(1):99-103.

Miciñski J, Maršálek M, Pogorzelska J, Vrbová A, Sobotka W, Zwierzchowski G and Matusevièius P (2014). The comparative analysis of milk performance in Czech pied cattle raised in the Czech Republic versus Polish Holstein-Friesian, Simmental and Czech pied cattle raised in Poland. Vet Med Zootec 67:75-80.

Mishra Geetesh, Siddiqui MF, Ingle VS, Pal RS and Meel MS (2017). Studies on genetic and phenotypic correlation of different productive and reproductive traits of Tharparkar cattle at organized farm. Ruminant Science 6(2):275-278.

Mukasa-Mugerwa E (1989). A review of reproductive performance of female Bos indicus (zebu) cattle. ILCA monograph no. 6.  International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA). Addis Ababa, ET:134.

Mukasa-Mugerwa E and Ezaz Z (1992). Relationship of testicular growth and size to age, body weight and onset of puberty in Menz ram lambs. Theriogenology 38(5):979-988.

Negussie E, Brannang E, Banjaw K and Rottmann OU (1998). Reproductive performance of dairy cattle at Assella livestock farm. Arsi, Ethiopia. I: Indigenous cows versus their F1 crosses. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 115:267-280

Olukoye G A and Mosi R O (2002). Non-genetic causes of heterogeneity of variance in milk yield among Holstein-Friesian herds in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian 25:18-23

Pandey M, Raja KN, Yousuf S and Gupta AK (2019). Effect of non-genetic factors on First Lactation 305 days and Lifetime Milk Yield in Sahiwal cattle. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 72(1):89-92.

Salunkhe MS (2007). Study on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Deoni Cattle. Master dissertation submitted to Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani (MS).

Santosa SA, Susanto A and Hindratiningrum N (2019). The Effect of Non-Genetic Factors on Milk Production in BBPTU HPT Baturraden Central Java. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 372(1):012007

Singh PK, Kumar Sumit, Goel R and Singh SP (2013). Genetic studies on some production traits in Sahiwal cows. Ruminant Science 2(2):201-203.

Soliman AM and Khalil MH (1991). Genetic and phenotypic associations of milk traits with age at calving and with length of open period, dry period and lactation. Egyptian Journal of Animal Production 28:131-146.

Valsalan Jamuna, Sadan Tina, Anilkumar K and Aravindakshan TV (2021). Evaluation of nongenetic factors affecting reproduction and production traits in crossbred dairy cattle of Kerala. Ruminant Science 10(1):37-42.

Yadav Alok Kumar, Mukherjee Anupama, Mumtaz Shabahat, Kumar Suchit and Pathak Prajwalita (2017). Effect of non-genetic factors on milk yield and milk constituents in Karan Fries cattle. Ruminant Science 6(2):225-230.