1-Title: Effect of vaccine modality for foot and mouth disease on immunogenicity and efficacy in Hallikar calves

1-Title: Effect of vaccine modality for foot and mouth disease on immunogenicity and efficacy in Hallikar calves

Authors: Rashmi L, K Ganesh, S Kishore, GR Reddy and VVS Suryanarayana

Source: Ruminant Science (2021)-10(1):1-8.

How to cite this manuscript: Rashmi L, Ganesh K, Kishore S, Reddy GR and Suryanarayana VVS (2021). Effect of vaccine modality for foot and mouth disease on immunogenicity and efficacy in Hallikar calves. Ruminant Science 10(1):1-8.


The present study aims to evaluate the immunization efficacy of the route of inoculation between intra dermal (ID) and intra muscular (IM) in Hallikar calves, using the FMD vaccine. Inactivated FMD Type A vaccine containing full dose and 1/5th dose were injected to 4 groups of animals through intra muscularly or intra dermal modes.  Efficacy of route was defined in terms of serum neutralizing antibodies, IgG1 and IgG2 isotype response for humoral immune response, Interferon-gamma release and MTT assay studies for cell-mediated immune response. Among two groups of calves that were intramuscularly vaccinated with a full dose vaccine, calves vaccinated intra dermal with 1/5th dose of the vaccine significant increase in vaccine-induced Immunoglobulin and cytokine response was observed.  Thus we conclude that the ID route is a good alternative for the IM route, as the ID route has shown to induce a very efficient immunological response against FMD. Moreover, the dose required by the ID route is lower compared with that of the IM route with an added benefit of the reduced requirement of antigen and cost per dose of FMD vaccine.


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