Comparative morphological studies of the trachea and lungs in adult Pashmina, Bakerwali and non-descript goats of Jammu and Kashmir state

Comparative morphological studies of the trachea and lungs in adult Pashmina, Bakerwali and non-descript goats of Jammu and Kashmir state

Title: Comparative morphological studies of the trachea and lungs in adult Pashmina, Bakerwali and non-descript goats of Jammu and Kashmir state

Authors: Neelofer Nabi, Kamal Sarma, Shalini Suri, Jonali Devi and MMS Zama

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):85-88

Cite this reference as: Nabi Neelofer, Sarma Kamal, Suri Shalini, Devi Jonali and Zama MMS (2019). Comparative morphological studies of the trachea and lungs in adult Pashmina, Bakerwali and non-descript goats of Jammu and Kashmir state. Ruminant Science 8(1):85-88.

Abstract

The present study was conducted on the trachea and lungs of adult Pashmina, Bakerwali and non-descript goats (ten each) to evaluate the comparative the gross morphological features of these organs.  The trachea of the goat was a tubular structure that begins at the cricoid cartilage of the larynx and ends when it bifurcates to form the principal bronchi, composed of a series of incomplete rings. The lungs were located in the thoracic cavity, protected by the thoracic cage and covered by a serous membrane known as the pleura. The lung consisted of paired right and left the lung. On the medial surface, there was a hilus, where the primary bronchi and associated blood vessels enter and leave the lungs. The colour of the lungs was light reddish in goat.

References

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Studies on prevalence and risk factors associated with colibacillosis in cattle calves in Bikaner

Studies on prevalence and risk factors associated with colibacillosis in cattle calves in Bikaner

Title: Studies on prevalence and risk factors associated with colibacillosis in cattle calves in Bikaner

Authors: TC Nayak, AP Singh, Savita, R Yadav, SR Gupta and JP Kachhawa

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):89-92

Cite this reference as: Nayak TC, Singh AP, Savita, Yadav R, Gupta SR and Kachhawa JP (2019). Studies on prevalence and risk factors associated with colibacillosis in cattle calves in Bikaner. Ruminant Science 8(1):89-92.

Abstract

Calf diarrhoea caused by E. coli is called colibacillosis, which is a very common and severe disease of neonatal calves. In the present investigation one hundred two diarrhoeic cattle calves (below 1 month of age) were screened for the prevalence of colibacillosis at Bikaner district of Rajasthan. Rectal swabs were cultured in EMB agar for isolation and identification of E. coli bacteria and multiplex PCR was carried out. Overall prevalence of colibacillosis in cattle calves was found 79.41 per cent. Young age, colostrum feeding practices and housing and hygienic practices were ascertained as a risk factor for colibacillosis in cattle calves.

References

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Antioxidants as an adjunct therapy in clinical management of babesiosis in cattle: A novel approach

Antioxidants as an adjunct therapy in clinical management of babesiosis in cattle: A novel approach

Title: Antioxidants as an adjunct therapy in clinical management of babesiosis in cattle: A novel approach

Authors: RM Shinde, AU Bhikane, BW Naraladkar and PS Masare

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):93-100

Cite this reference as: Shinde RM, Bhikane AU, Naraladkar BW and Masare PS (2019). Antioxidants as an adjunct therapy in clinical management of babesiosis in cattle: A novel approach. Ruminant Science 8(1):93-100.

Abstract

Babesiosis is an economically important and commonly encountered haemoprotozoan disease of cattle in India. Out of 1205 clinical cases of cattle, 24 animals were found clinically positive for babesiosis, indicating an overall hospital prevalence of 1.99 per cent. The disease was found to be more prevalent in male indigenous cattle above four years of age during summer. The babesiosis affected cattle exhibited anorexia, weakness, haemoglobinuria, anaemia, jaundice, rise in body temperature (102.8±0.41oF), tachycardia (84.16±2.94/min) and rapid respiration (29.95±1.97per min). Haematologically significant decrease in haemoglobin (6.71±0.57 g/dl), packed cell volume (20.37±1.45%) and total erythrocyte count (4.64±0.41× 106/µl) with a non-significant decrease in total leucocyte count and platelet count was noticed. On serum biochemical analysis, serum total (3.35±0.32 mg/dl), direct (1.27±0.16 mg/dl) and indirect (1.98±0.06 mg/dl) bilirubin, serum urea nitrogen (30.98±1.03 mg/dl) and serum creatinine (1.47±0.04 mg/dl)) values were found significantly higher in affected animals as compared to healthy cattle. Urine analysis revealed significantly decreased pH (7.47±0.24) and increased specific gravity (1.02±0.02) with bilirubinuria. Post-mortem examination showed pale-icteric carcass, hepatomegaly, distended gall bladder, splenomegaly, blackish kidneys and coffee coloured urine in the bladder. Therapeutic trials were conducted on 24 clinical cases of babesiosis in cattle divided into 2 treatment groups Viz. Group A  (Diminazene diaceturate alone) and Group B (Diminazene diaceturate and Vit. E plus Selenium) comprising 12 animals each. The overall recovery rate was the same in both treatment groups (91.67%), but the recovery was faster in diminazene diaceturate with Vit. E and selenium treated group (2.33±0.54 days) as compared to those treated with diminazene diaceturate alone (3.16±0.57 days). Thus it is concluded that the Vit E plus selenium therapy can be used as an adjunct therapy for the management of oxidative stress induced intravascular haemolysis in babesiosis in cattle.

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Dermatophilosis in cattle: A case report

Dermatophilosis in cattle: A case report

Title: Dermatophilosis in cattle: A case report

Authors: GS Haritha, MG Bhaskar and K Venkatesh

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):101-102

Cite this reference as: Haritha GS, Bhaskar MG and Venkatesh K (2019). Dermatophilosis in cattle: A case report. Ruminant Science 8(1):101-102.

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Treatment of open bone fractures using epoxy-pin fixation in small ruminants: A review of 26 cases

Treatment of open bone fractures using epoxy-pin fixation in small ruminants: A review of 26 cases

Title: Treatment of open bone fractures using epoxy-pin fixation in small ruminants: A review of 26 cases

Authors: HP Aithal, P Kinjavdekar, Amarpal, AM Pawde, Rohit Kumar, Rekha Pathak, P Kumar, SK Tyagi, P Dubey and DN Madhu

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):103-114

Cite this reference as: Aithal HP, Kinjavdekar P, Amarpal, Pawde AM, Kumar Rohit, Pathak Rekha, Kumar P, Tyagi SK, Dubey P and Madhu DN (2019). Treatment of open bone fractures using epoxy-pin fixation in small ruminants: A review of 26 cases. Ruminant Science 8(1):103-114.

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to evaluate epoxy-pin external skeletal fixation (ESF) technique for treatment of open fractures in small ruminants. Twenty five goats and a sheep (weighing 8-55 kg) with fractures below the stifle or elbow made the subject for the study. The pins (1.5-2.0 mm K-wires, crossed at 600-900) were fixed in both proximal and distal bone fragments/bones. The pins in the same plane were bent (about 1-1.5 cm from the skin) towards the fracture site/joint and were joined using an adhesive tape (additional pins used when required) to make a temporary scaffold of connecting bars/rings. Thoroughly mixed epoxy putty was applied along the pin scaffold to make 18-20 mm epoxy-pin columns, and allowed to set for 40-50 minutes. All the animals were evaluated based on different clinical and radiographic observations made at regular intervals.

The results indicated that the epoxy-pin fixation was easy to apply and provided stable fixation of bone as indicated by early weight bearing, and normal fracture healing within 70 days (19 cases); and good to very good (13 cases) or satisfactory (6 cases) functional recovery in majority (3/4) of cases. It can be concluded that the multiplanar epoxy-pin ESF is simple, economical and provides stable fixation of unstable open fractures below the stifle or elbow joint in sheep and goats, hence it can be used to treat open fractures of lower limb, which are difficult to treat by conventional techniques.

References

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Aithal HP, Amarpal, Kinjavdekar P, Pawde AM, Singh, GR and Setia HC (2010). Management of tibial fractures using a circular external fixator in two calves. Veterinary Surgery 39:621-626.

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Aithal HP, Kinjavdekar P, Amarpal, Pawde AM, Zama MMS, Dubey P, Kumar R, Tyagi SK and Madhu DN (2019). Epoxy-pin external skeletal fixation for management of open bone fractures in calves and foals: A review of 32 cases. Veterinary Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 32(3):257-268.

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Basith MA, Sreenu M, Chandra Sekhar EL and Rajendranath N (2018). Management of long bone fractures by free-form external skeletal fixation using epoxy putty in sheep and goat. Journal of Livestock Science 9:51-55.

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Kumar P, Aithal HP, Kinjavdekar P, Amarpal, Pawde AM, Pratap K, Surbhi and Sinha DK (2012). Epoxy-pin external skeletal fixation for treatment of open fractures or dislocations in 36 dogs. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 33:128-132.

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Tyagi SK, Aithal HP, Kinjavdekar P, Amarpal, Pawde AM, Srivastava T, Singh J and Madhu DN (2015). In vitro biomechanical testing of different configurations of acrylic external skeletal fixator constructs. Veterinary Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 28:227-233.

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Surgico-therapeutic management of oesophageal affections in cows and buffaloes

Surgico-therapeutic management of oesophageal affections in cows and buffaloes

Title: Surgico-therapeutic management of oesophageal affections in cows and buffaloes

Authors: S Purohit, Vimlesh Kumar, Anil Singh, Prabha Sharma, Atul Yadav, Chetan Sharma, Raveendra RT, PVV Reddy and RP Pandey

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):115-124

Cite this reference as: Purohit S, Kumar Vimlesh, Singh Anil, Sharma Prabha, Yadav Atul, Sharma Chetan, Raveendra RT, Reddy PVV and Pandey RP (2019). Surgico-therapeutic management of oesophageal affections in cows and buffaloes. Ruminant Science 8(1):115-124.

Abstract

The present study was conducted to document the causes, clinical findings and types of oesophageal affections in cows and buffaloes. Forty-two (13 cattle and 29 buffaloes) animals with oesophageal obstruction presented to the Kothari Veterinary Hospital were included in the study. Oesophageal obstruction was observed more frequently in female (83.33%) than male (16.67%) animals. Adult animals were more liable to these conditions (76.19%) than those of other age groups (23.81%).  Complete obstruction (52.38%) was more frequent than partial obstruction (38.09%). Only intraluminal obstruction was observed. Plain and contrast radiography aided in definitive diagnosis of these cases. Conservative treatment by probang (3 cattle and 7 buffaloes), oral retrieval (2 cattle and 4 buffaloes), endoscopic retrieval (2 buffalo calves), exposure of the cervical oesophagus (3 buffalo), cervical oesophagotomy (6 cattle and 9 buffaloes), laparorumenotomy (1 buffalo calf), Oesophageal diverticulectomy (1 cow and 1 buffalo), repair of megaoesophagus (1 buffalo) and repair of oesophageal fistula (1 buffalo) were done with favourable results in these cases. It can hence be concluded that early diagnosis, proper conservative or surgical interventions, and postoperative follow-up are the fundamental factors for successful treatment of oesophageal affections in cows and buffaloes.

References

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Purohit S, Malik V, Singh S, Yadav S, Kumar G and Pandey RP (2015). Surgical management of various rumen affections in cattle and buffaloes. Ruminant Science 4(2):357-260.

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Goat/sheep eyes: An ideal model for practicing cataract extraction procedure

Goat/sheep eyes: An ideal model for practicing cataract extraction procedure

Title: Goat/sheep eyes: An ideal model for practicing cataract extraction procedure

Authors: Amit Kumar, SP Tyagi, Adarsh Kumar, Rohit Kumar and Nikita Mastkar

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):125-128

Cite this reference as: Kumar Amit, Tyagi SP, Kumar Adarsh, Kumar Rohit and Mastkar Nikita (2019). Goat/sheep eyes: An ideal model for practicing cataract extraction procedure. Ruminant Science 8(1):125-128.

Abstract

Isolated goat eyes and heads of goat/sheep from fresh cadaver were operated for the standardization of various cataract extraction procedure. Two port (major and minor) anterior chamber entry at about 10-11o clock and minor port at 2 to 3o clock position of the eyeballs were created as a clear corneal incision or a scleral tunnel (and a limbal based conjunctival flap). Clear corneal incision was found much more useful. One minute was sufficient time for the trypan blue dye to stain the anterior capsule. Continuous tear curvilinear capsulorhexis was found better than can-opener technique for capsulorhexis. Hydro dissection using ringer’s lactate of normal lens material was found difficult in all eyes.

References

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Sharma R, Tank PH, Kasundra JK, Panchal KM and Patil DB (2007). Goat eye: An ideal training model for cataract surgery. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 28(2):101-103.

Singh S, Purohit S and Pandey RP (2015). B-mode intraocular echo-morphometry of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Ruminant Science 4(2):249-54.

Singh S, Purohit S, Malik V, Yadav S, Singh RK, Gangwar NK and Pandey RP (2016). Echo-morphometric evaluation of ocular affections in murrah buffaloes. Ruminant Science 5(1):117-122.

Dada VK and Sindhu N (2000). Cataract in enucleated goat eyes: Training model for phacoemulsification. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery 26(8):1114-1116.

Radiographic evaluation of caudal venacava and aorta size in apparently healthy goats (Capra hircus)

Radiographic evaluation of caudal venacava and aorta size in apparently healthy goats (Capra hircus)

Title: Radiographic evaluation of caudal venacava and aorta size in apparently healthy goats (Capra hircus)

Authors: Vimlesh Kumar, S Purohit, PR Singh, AK Singh and RP Pandey

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):129-131

Cite this reference as: Kumar Vimlesh, Purohit S, Singh PR, Singh AK and Pandey RP (2019). Radiographic evaluation of caudal venacava and aorta size in apparently healthy goats (Capra hircus). Ruminant Science 8(1):129-131.

Abstract

The present study was conducted on twelve apparently healthy goats free from cardiothoracic diseases to generate the reference values of length of the thoracic vertebra 4 (T4), the width of the fourth rib (R4) and diameters of the caudal vena cava (CVC) and aorta (AO). The animals were divided into two groups each containing 6 animals. Mean±SE values of the aorta (AO) diameter and caudal vena cava  (CVC) diameter  were 1.58±0.10 (range 1.3-1.9) cm, 1.30±0.10 (1.1-1.7) cm and 1.82±0.09 (1.6-2.2) cm, 1.50±0.09  (1.2-1.7),  respectively in the goats of the groups I and II. Mean±SE values of the length of the fourth thoracic vertebra (T4), width of fourth rib (R4) were 1.92±0.09 (1.7-2.2) cm, 0.74±0.08 (0.42-1.0) cm and 2.13± 0.11 (1.8-2.6) cm, 0.63±0.04 (0.50-0.80) cm, respectively in the goats of the groups I and II. Positive correlations with age and body weight were observed in AO, CVC, CVC/AO, CVC/T4, CVC/R4 and AO/R4 while AO/T4 was positively correlated only with the body weight of the animals.  Width of fourth rib (R4) was showed negative correlations with age and body weight while AO/T4 showed negative correlations only with the age of the animals. These reference values may help in the diagnosis and future studies of the cardiovascular disease.

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Surgical management of ruminal impaction due to feeding of arecanut sheath fibres in a heifer

Surgical management of ruminal impaction due to feeding of arecanut sheath fibres in a heifer

Title: Surgical management of ruminal impaction due to feeding of arecanut sheath fibres in a heifer

Authors: Ravi Raidurg and M Naveen

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):133-134

Cite this reference as: Raidurg Ravi and Naveen M (2019). Surgical management of ruminal impaction due to feeding of arecanut sheath fibres in a heifer. Ruminant Science 8(1):133-134.

References

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Kumar Manoj, Bishnoi P, Jhirwal SK, Palecha Sakar, Singh Satyaveer and Tanwar Mahendra (2017). Surgico-therapeutic management of rumen impaction in cattle. Ruminant Science 6(2):397-398.

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Purohit S, Malik V, Singh S, Yadav S, Kumar G and Pandey RP (2015). Surgical management of various rumen affections in cattle and buffaloes. Ruminant Science 4(2):357-260.

Raidurg Ravi (2010). Rumen impaction in a six-month pregnant cow and its surgical management.  Intas Polivet 11(II):194-195.

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Evaluation of efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate-xylazine-pentazocine-propofol–

Evaluation of efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate-xylazine-pentazocine-propofol–

Title: Evaluation of efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate-xylazine-pentazocine-propofol–isoflurane anaesthesia combination in buffaloes undergoing diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy

Authors: Satbir Sharma, Ashok Kumar, Rishi Tayal, RN Chaudhary, DK Tiwari and Neeraj Arora

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):135-139

Cite this reference as: Sharma Satbir, Kumar Ashok, Tayal Rishi, Chaudhary RN, Tiwari DK and Arora Neeraj (2019). Evaluation of efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate-xylazine-pentazocine-propofol-isoflurane anaesthesia combination in buffaloes undergoing diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy. Ruminant Science 8(1):135-139.

Abstract

The present study evaluates the efficacy of Glycopyrrolate-Xylazine-Pentazocine-Propofol-Isoflurane in buffaloes undergoing diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy. No significant variation was observed in any haemato-biochemical, haemodynamic parameters studied at any interval of study. Sedation, muscle relaxation, analgesia, induction and maintenance were optimum in all animals. Based on results obtained this combination was found safe and effective in buffaloes undergoing diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy.

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Kishore V (2018). Studies on glycopyrrolate-acepromazine/xylazine-butorphanol-propofol-sevoflurane anaesthesia in buffaloes undergoing diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy. MVSc Thesis submitted to LUVAS, Hisar.

Mirakhur KK, Sobti VK and Nigam JM (1984). Effect of thiopentone anaesthesia on plasma catecholamines and cortisol in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis). Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 3:86-88.

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Potliya S (2012). Evaluation of atropine-xylazine-propofol and glycopyrrolate-xylazine-propofol as anaesthetic combinations in buffalo calves. MVSc thesis submitted to LUVAS, Hisar.

Potliya S (2015). Evaluation of balanced anaesthetic combinations for anaesthetic management of buffaloes undergoing diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy. PhD thesis submitted to LUVAS, Hisar.

Seller G, Lin Hui-Chu, Chamorro MF and Walz PH (2013). Comparison of isoflurane and sevoflurane anaesthesia in Holstein calves for placement of portal and jugular vein cannula. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences 8(1):1-7.

Sharma S (2011). Comparative evaluation of efficacy of pentazocine lactate, butorphanol tartrate and dipyrone in buffaloes undergoing diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy. MVSc thesis submitted to LUVAS, Hisar.

Sharma V and Bhargava MK (2007). Clinical effects of propofol general anaesthesia in dogs. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 28(1):33-34.

Steffey EP and Mama KR (2015). Inhalation anaesthetics. In: Lumb and Jones’ Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. Eds: WJ Tranquilli, JC Thurmon and KA Grimm, 5th Edn, Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA. pp 297-331.

Tranquilli WJ, Thurmon JC and Grimm KA (2015). Lumb and Jones’ Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 5th Edn, Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA.