Supra-nutritional trace elements affect ruminal protein metabolism in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls

Supra-nutritional trace elements affect ruminal protein metabolism in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls

Title: Supra-nutritional trace elements affect ruminal protein metabolism in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls

Authors: Vishal Mudgal, Anil Kumar Garg and Ram Sharan Dass

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):9-12

Cite this reference as: Mudgal Vishal, Garg AK and Dass RS (2019). Supra-nutritional trace elements affect ruminal protein metabolism in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls. Ruminant Science 8(1):9-12.


An experiment was conducted on 4 rumen fistulated buffalo bulls (aged about 4 years, mean body weight 352 kg) in 4 x 4 Latin square switchover design, to elucidate the effect of supra-nutritional levels of copper (Cu) or /and selenium (Se). Different groups were fed either targeted minerals sufficient (Cu 10.02 ppm and Se 0.22 ppm) control (C) diet or supplemented with 10 ppm Cu (T1), 0.3 ppm Se (T2) and both trace elements simultaneously (T3). Bulls were fed on wheat straw and concentrate mixture diet to meet their nutrient requirements. After 21 days of feeding on a particular diet, and before switching the animals to the next diet, rumen liquor was collected for three consecutive days from all the animals at zero (pre-prandially), 2, 4, 6 and 8-hour post-prandially to measure different ruminal nitrogen fractions in buffalo bulls. Results revealed no significant effect of treatments on ammonical nitrogen (N), total-N, trichloroacetic acid (TCA)- precipitable-N and non-protein-N in rumen liquor of buffalo bulls. Overall mean concentrations of total-N were found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher at 2 hours, as compared to 0, 6 and 8 hours, whereas the ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower (P<0.01) at 0 and 8 hours as compared to 2 hours. Values at 0 hours were also lower (P<0.05) as compared to 4 and 6 hours. The non-protein-N values were found to be significantly (P<0.01) higher at 2 hours as compared to 0, 6 and 8 hours.


Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000). Officials Methods of Analysis. 16th Edn, Washington, DC, USA.

Chaney AL and Marbach EP (1962). Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clinical Chemistry 8:8-130.

Cline H, Hershberger TV and Bentley G (1958). Utilization and/or synthesis of valeric acid during the digestion of glucose and cellulose by microorganisms in vitro. Journal of Animal Science 17:284-290.

Engle TE and Spears JW (2000). Dietary copper effects on lipid metabolism, performance, and ruminal fermentation in finishing steers. Journal of Animal Science 78:2452-2458.

Essig HW, Davis JD and Smithson LJ (1972). Copper sulfate in steer rations. Journal of Animal Science 35:436-439. 

Gould L and Kendall NR (2011). Role of the rumen in copper and thiomolybdate absorption. Nutrition Research Reviews 24:176-182.

Hernández Sánchez D, Cervantes Gómez D, Ramírez Bribiesca JE, Cobos Peralta M,  Pinto Ruiz R, Astigarraga L and Gere JI (2019). The influence of copper levels on in vitro ruminal fermentation, bacterial growth and methane production. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 99:1073-1077.

Katulski SL (2017). Effects of mineral supplementation on growing cattle and in vitro fermentation by ruminal microbes. MSc Thesis submitted to  Kansas State University.

Kearl LC (1982). Nutrient Requirement of Ruminants in Developing Countries. International Feedstuffs Institute, Utah Agriculture Station, Utah State University, Logan, Utah USA.

Manju, Dhuria RK, Khinchi RK, Meel P and Meel MS (2019). Effect of herbs as feed additive on rumen fermentation patterns and haemato-biochemical parameters in Marwari rams fed wheat straw based complete feed. International Journal of Livestock Research 9:32-40.

Mudgal V, Garg AK, Dass RS and Rawat M (2018). Selenium and copper interaction at supra-nutritional level affecting blood parameters including immune response against P. multocida antigen in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Journal of Trace Element in Medicine and Biology 50:415-423.

Mudgal V, Garg AK, Dass RS and Rawat M (2019). Supra-nutritional copper influences blood parameters including antioxidant markers and immune response in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Livestock Science 225:15-25.

Mudgal V, Garg AK, Dass RS and Varshney VP (2008). Effect of selenium and copper supplementation on blood metabolic profile in male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Biological Trace Element Research 121:31-38.

National Research Council (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th Revised Edn, Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Panev A, Hauptmanová K, Pavlata L, Pechová A, Filípek J and Dvoøák R (2013). Effect of supplementation of various selenium forms and doses on selected parameters of ruminal fluid and blood in sheep. Czech Journal of Animal Science 58:37-46.

Shinde PL, Dass RS, Garg AK and Bhadane KP (2008). Effect of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on rumen metabolites and protozoa number in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) bulls. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 25:146-150.

Solaiman Craig Jr SGTJ, Reddy G and Shoemaker CE (2007). Effect of high levels of Cu supplement on growth performance, rumen fermentation and immune responses in goat kids. Small Ruminant Research 69:115-123.

Vázquez-Armijo JF, Martínez-Tinajero JJ, Lopez D, Salem AFZM and Rojo R (2011). In vitro gas production and dry matter degradability of diets consumed by goats with or without copper and zinc supplementation. Biological Trace Element Research 144:580-587.

Wei JY, Wang L, Liu W, Zhang KZ and Sun P (2019). Effects of different selenium supplements on rumen fermentation and apparent nutrient and selenium digestibility of mid-lactation dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 102:1-5.

Zhang W, Wang R, Zhu X, Kleemann DO, Yue C and Jia Z (2007). Effects of dietary copper on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and fiber characteristics in cashmere goats. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 20:1843-1848.