Ultrasonography of udder and teat in dairy animals

Ultrasonography of udder and teat in dairy animals

Title: Ultrasonography of udder and teat in dairy animals

Authors: NR Amin, DB Patil, DN Kelawala, PV Parikh, DR Mer, KS Gameti and KM Gohil

Source: Ruminant Science (2017)-6(1):173-177.

Cite this reference as: Amin NR, Patil DB, Kelawala DN, Parikh PV, Mer DR, Gameti KS and Gohil KM (2017). Ultrasonography of udder and teat in dairy animals. Ruminant Science 6(1):173-177.

Abstract

Thirty eight bovines (cow-26 and buffalo-12), udder and teats were examined by ultrasonography (USG) using 7.5 to 18 MHz frequency transducers by contact gel and water bath methods. Contact gel technique provided better visualization of teat cistern and water bath technique gave good detail of distal portion of teat. The glandular parenchyma was seen as homogenous hypoechoic with anechoic alveoli. The lactiferous ducts and vessels of bovine mammary gland appeared as anechoic structures. Three layers of teat wall were clearly seen: outer hyperechoic, middle hypoechoic and inner hyperechoic. Teat cistern appeared as an anechoic area surrounded by a hyperechoic line (mucosa).

References

Awad M, Ahmed I, Hamamy M and Mohammed M (2008). Survey on surgical affections of udder and teats in small ruminants in Ismallia and north Sinai governates. Sulz Canal Veterinary Medicine Journal 13: 1.

Bradley K, Bradley A and Barr F (2001). Ultrasonographic appearance of the superficial supramammary lymph nodes in lactating dairy cattle. Veterinary Record 148: 497-501.

Celik HA, Aydin I, Colak M, Sendag S and Dinc DA (2008). Ultrasonographic evaluation of age related influence on the teat canal and the effect of this influence on milk yield in brown swiss cows. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 52:245-249.

Fasulkov I, Vasilev N, Karadaev M and Dineva G (2014). Visualization and measurement of teat structures in black and white cows through ultrasonography. Macedonian Veterinary Review 37(1):89-93.

Fasulkov I and Koleva M (2011). Ultrasound imaging findings in acute mammary gland inflammations in goats. Journal of Mountain Agriculture on the Balkans 14:210-221.

Flock M and Winter P (2006). Diagnostic ultrasonography in cattle with diseases of the mammary gland. Veterinary Journal 171:314-321.

Franz S, Floek M and Hofmann-Parisot M (2009). Ultrasonography of the bovine udder and teat. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 25:669-685.

Rajamahendran R, Ambrose DJ and Burton B (1994). Clinical and research applications of real-time ultrasonography in bovine reproduction: A review. Canadian Veterinary Journal 35:563-572.

Rambabu K, Sreenu M, Sureshkumar RV and Rao TSC (2009). Ultrasonography of udder and teat in buffalo. Buffalo Bulletin 28(1):5-10.

Rambabu K, Sreenu M, Sureshkumar RV and Rao TSC (2008). Ultrasonography of udder and teat in buffalo: A comparision of four methods. Buffalo Bulletin 27(4):269-273.                  

Szencziova I and Strapak P (2012). Ultrasonography of the udder and teat in cattle: perspective measuring technique. Slovak Journal of Animal Science 45(3):96-104.

Twardon J, Dzieciol M and Nizanski W (2001). Modern techniques in diagnosis and therapy of mammary gland diseases in cows. Journal of Dairy Science 2:29-32.

Witzig P, Ru¨ sch P and Berchtold M (1984). Wesen, Diagnose und Behandlung von Schleimhautabrissen im Bereich des Strichkanals. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 91:219-222.