June 2018 7-1​

June 2018 7-1

Ruminant Science June 2018(7-1)

1.Title: Assessment of milk quality of upcountry dairy farm in Sri Lanka
Authors: WKR Nirmali, AHL Priyabhashana, AMS Bandara and Manjula PS Magamage
Source: Ruminant Science (2018)-7(1):1-4.

2.Title: Prevalence and risk factors associated with strongyles infection in goats in and around Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
Authors:Kusum Lata, G Das, NK Kumbhakar and R Saiyam
Source: Ruminant Science (2018)-7(1):5-9.

3.Title: Energy and protein requirements of Karan fries cows during early lactation in and around Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
Authors: Neha Sharma, SS Kundu, Veena Mani, Hujaz Tariq and Ruchi Malhotra
Source: Ruminant Science (2018)-7(1):11-14.

4.Title: Macro and micro mineral status of feeds and fodders of goats in arid zone of Rajasthan
Authors: Deepika Goklaney, Anil Ahuja and RK Dhuria
Source: Ruminant Science (2018)-7(1):15-20.

5.Title: Effect of irregular feeding schedule on haemato-biochemical profile of goats.
Authors: Alok Mishra, AK Verma, Asit Das, VK Munde, Meesam Raza and Nazam Khan
Source: Ruminant Science (2018)-7(1):21-23.

6.Title: Genetic polymorphism of cluster of differentiation (CD) 14 gene and its association with mastitis in Deoni cattle
Authors: Shivashanker, MR Jayashankar, R Nagaraja, S Yathiraj, YB Rajeshwari and Shrikrishna Isloor
Source: Ruminant Science (2018)-7(1):25-27.

7.Title: Association of resistin gene polymorphism with productive and reproductive traits in Sahiwal cattle
Authors: Vijay Pandey, Rajesh Nigam, Deepak Sharma, SP Singh and Madhu Tiwari
Source: Ruminant Science (2018)-7(1):29-32.

8.Title: Identification of candidate K232A polymorphism of DGAT1 gene in Hariana cattle
Authors: Rajpal Kaur, Ankit Magotra, Ramkaran, Sandeep Gera, Sandeep Kumar, Kamaldeep, Asha Garg and Rahul
Source: Ruminant Science (2018)-7(1):33-36.

Ethnoveterinary practices of gynaecological affection with their extent of use in western zone of Rajasthan

Ethnoveterinary practices of gynaecological affection with their extent of use in western zone of Rajasthan

Title: Ethnoveterinary practices of gynaecological affection with their extent of use in western zone of Rajasthan

Authors: SL Garg, NK Sharma, Devi Singh Rajput and SS Rathore 

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):69-72

Cite this reference as: Garg SL, Sharma NK, Rajput DS and Rathore SS (2019). Ethnoveterinary practices of gynaecological affection with their extent of use in western zone of Rajasthan. Ruminant Science 8(1):69-72.

Abstract

The present study was conducted in Bikaner and Jodhpur districts of Rajasthan in order to document the ethnoveterinary practices followed by livestock owners. A total of 120 livestock owners were selected as respondent from 12 selected villages of 4 tehsils of the districts. Inventories of ethnoveterinary practices were documented for treatment of retention of placenta and prolapse. Using haldi (Curcuma longa) with ghee was found most frequently used practices for treatment of prolapse in animal and having highest Ethnoveterinary Medicine Use Index (EVMUI) 115 and ranked first. Chirmi (Abrus precatorius) with bajara (Penisetum typhoidis) was found most frequently using practice for treatment of retention of placenta having highest EVMUI 82 and ranked first

References

Devaki K and Mathialagan (2015). Animal husbandry traditional knowledge in Kancheepuram district. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology 4(5):1289-1295.

Islam MM and Kashem MA (1999). Farmers’ use of ethno-veterinary medicine (EVM) in the rearing and management of livestock: An empirical study in Bangladesh. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 13:39-56.

Kathiriya SV, Rani VD and Vyas HU (2012). Ethnoveterinary practices associated with animal healthcare in dang district of south Gujarat, India. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology 3(1):

Perumal P, Veeraselvam M and Nahak AK (2013). Herbal treatment in animal reproduction. International Journal of Bio-Resource and Stress Management 4(3):460-467.

Mangal AK (2015). Traditional knowledge in veterinary medicine: A case study of Gorakhpur district, Uttar Pradesh (India). International Journal of Advanced Research 3(1):127-143.

Maurya Nitin, Ravikumar RK, Milli Rajiv, Prasad Madhava, Raturi Vipin and Kumar Vivek (2017). Conceptual design in integrating informal knowledge system: A specific reference to livestock science. Ruminant Science 6(2):357-360.

Romha G, Dejene TA, Telila LB and Bekele DF (2015). Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants: Preparation and application methods by traditional healers in selected districts of southern Ethiopia. Veterinary World 8(5):674-684.

Sunder J, Sujatha T, Kundu A and Kundu MS (2014). Medicinal plant and ethnoveterinary practices used in South and North Andaman. Journal of the Andaman Science Association 19(1):106-115.

Specialized goat training programme as an extension tool for knowledge increment and adoption

Specialized goat training programme as an extension tool for knowledge increment and adoption

Title: Specialized goat training programme as an extension tool for knowledge increment and adoption

Authors: Khushpreet Singh, Rajesh Kasrija, Ravdeep Singh, Bilawal Singh, SK Kansal and HK Verma

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):65-67

Cite this reference as: Singh Khushpreet, Kasrija Rajesh, Singh Ravdeep, Singh Bilawal, Kansal SK and Verma HK (2019). Specialized goat training programme as an extension tool for knowledge increment and adoption. Ruminant Science 8(1):65-67.

Abstract

Increasing demand for chevon and goat milk has attracted majority of the farmers towards goat farming. Studies conducted so far reported that there is gap between the improved and existing practices of goat rearing. Specialized goat training programmes are desirable to farmers as they are often eager to improve their knowledge and practices and to have their knowledge affirmed by professionals. Hence, the present study was conducted to know the status of specialized goat training of institute as an extension tool for knowledge enhancement and adoption. The impact of the training programme on the knowledge of farmers (n=210) was assessed through taking knowledge test before and after training programme. The average knowledge scores (out of 10) increased from 3.58±0.13   to 7.67±0.09 indicating high knowledge gain. The present study revealed that knowledge level of farmers towards goat farming is low and there is a significant (P<0.05) improvement in their knowledge after attending five days training on various aspects of goat rearing. The adoption rate was calculated from the year 2013 to 2018. The adoption rate of goat farming (n=527) in 2013 was 27.08%, 2014 was 32.14%, 2015 was 36.00%, 2016 was 32.81%, 2017 was 39.51% and 2018 was 31.25%. Specialized training programmes are highly effective to improve knowledge level and adoption. Hence, training programmes have found to be an excellent extension tool as well as a rise in trend of goat farming in Punjab has been observed

 

References

Bilwar Harikant, Mandal MK, Singh Ruchi and Yadav Jitendra (2015). Capacity building of tribal people on scientific goat farming practices. Ruminant Science 4(2):189-191.

Bilwar Harikant, Mandal MK, Singh Ruchi and Yadav Jitendra Singh (2016). An analysis of goat production system in tribal areas of Mandla district. Ruminant Science 5(1):55-58.

Biswas S, Sarkar A and Goswami A (2008). Impact of KVK training on advance dairy farming practices (AFDPS) in changing knowledge and attitude of Prani-Bandhu. Journal of Dairying Foods Home Science 27(1):43-46.

Dixit AK, Mohan B, Singh K and Kumar V (2014). Impact of training programme on goat farmers and stakeholders: A study of CIRG training programmes.  Indian Research Journal of Extension Education 14:112-114.

Hundal JS, Singh U, Singh N, Kansal SK and Bhatti JS (2016). Impact of training knowledge on goat farmers of Punjab. Haryana Vet 55:47-49.

Landge S (2004). Study of goat production practices by goat keepers of Kandhar block in Nanded district. MVSc thesis submitted to MAFSU, Nagpur.

Mandal MK and Kirar Nitin (2016). Relationship between socio economic profile and knowledge level of goat owners regarding scientific goat farming practices. Ruminant Science 5(1):47-50.

Mandavkar PM, Hanmante AA and Talathi MS (2015). Status of goat farming practices, knowledge and adoption status of technologies in North Konkan Coastal Zone of Maharashtra. Journal of Krishi Vigyan 3:93-96.

Mohan B, Sagar R L and Singh K (2009). Factors related to promotion of scientific goat rearing. Indian Research Journal of Extension Education 9:47-50.

Noor KBN and Doha K (2011). Investigating training impact on farmer’s perception and performance. International Journal of Humanities Social Science 1(6):145-52.

Singh H (2012). Training and development: A prominent determinant for improving HR productivity. International Conference on Management and Education Innovation IPEDR, Vol.37 IACSIT Press, Singapore.

Singh K, Kasrija R,  Singh B, Sharma M, Singh R and Verma HK (2018).  Specialized goat training programme on knowledge level and adoption. Indian Veterinary Journal 95(3):30-32.

Sinha SK, Chander Mahesh, Mohan Braj, Yadav Rekha and Thakur  Devesh (2016). Constraints perceived in accessing and utilization of information on improved goat farming: A gender perspective study. Ruminant Science 5(2):277-282.

Goat production status in adopted village: A mid-term evaluation of institutional interventions

Goat production status in adopted village: A mid-term evaluation of institutional interventions

Title: Goat production status in adopted village: A mid-term evaluation of institutional interventions

Authors: Vijay Kumar, Pourouchottamane R, Braj Mohan, Ashok Kumar, UB Chaudhary and AK Dixit

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):61-64

Cite this reference as: Kumar Vijay, Pourouchottamane R, Mohan Braj, Kumar Ashok, Chaudhary UB and Dixit AK (2019). Goat production status in adopted village: A mid-term evaluation of institutional interventions. Ruminant Science 8(1):61-64.

Abstract

A study was undertaken to improve the productivity of goats and increase the income of goat farmers under the adopted village programme of Institute. Thirty-seven goat farmers having about 200 goats were given health, nutritional and breeding intervention along with their capacity building. Most of the respondents were illiterate (37.8%) and belonged to Other Backward Category (75.7%) and having marginal land (73%).  The Experimental design was Pre-Post Test without a control group. Data were collected by individual in-depth interviews with 37 goat keepers in the adopted village after a gap of 12-18 months of the intervention. Due to regular intervention, there was a significant increase in the Barbari breed (above 50%). The adoption rate of different technologies and practices has been increased from 30 per cent to 55 per cent. The income of the farmers has increased by 10.8 per cent; it is mainly because of the reduction of mortality (22 to 1.25%) and adoption of scientific practices. 

References

Bilwar Harikant, Mandal MK, Singh Ruchi and Yadav Jitendra Singh (2016). An analysis of goat production system in tribal areas of Mandla district. Ruminant Science 5(1):55-58.

Borthakur Bikash (2015). Socio-economic and psychological status of goat farmers in Dibrugarh district of Assam. Ruminant Science 4(1):91-94.

Dixit AK, Singh SK,  Tripathi MK, Singh MK and Kumar V (2015).  Economic gains from technological and marketing interventions in goat production in India: An exante assessment. Agricultural Economics Research Review 28(2):285-292. 

GoI (Government of India) (2018). Basic Animal Husbandry and Fisheries Statistics. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, Krishi Bhawan,  New Delhi. p 94.

Karthikeyanm C (1994). Sugar factory registered growers: An analysis of their involvement and impact. MSc Thesis submitted to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.

Kumar V, Rout  PK, Kumar A, Pourouchottamane R, Mohan B and Dixit AK (2018). Goat production in Bharatpur, Rajasthan-Status and strategy for development. International Journal of Livestock Research 8(6):286-292.

Kumar V, Singh BP, Dutt T, Kumar R and Maousami (2014). Perceived constraints and suggestions in adoption of goat husbandry technologies: A study in semi-arid zone of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 84(8):897-902. 

Kumar V, Singh BP, Dutt T, Kumar R and Maousami (2015). Adoption behaviour of goat farmers about improved technologies in semi-arid zone of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 85(9):1034-1041.

Kumar Vijay, Singh BP and Bangar YC (2013). Adoption level of breeding and reproduction management practices among goat farmers in semi arid zone of Uttar Pradesh. Ruminant Science 2(2):207-210.

Pal RS and Bamania MK (2016). Studies on mortality rate in preweaning kids of Sirohi goat. Ruminant Science 5(1):91-93.

Mandal MK and Kirar Nitin (2016). Relationship between socio economic profile and knowledge level of goat owners regarding scientific goat farming practices. Ruminant Science 5(1):47-50.

Mordia Anil, Sharma MC, Gurjar ML and Nagda RK (2018). Existing breeding and feeding practices of goat in Chittorgarh district of Rajasthan. Ruminant Science 7(2):297-300.

Singh MK and Chauhan MS (2019). Role of goat farming in doubling farmers income in India: Prospects and potential. In: ISSGPU-National Seminar on Current Scenario and Future Strategies for Augmenting Productivity in Small Ruminants at Patna. pp 215-228.

Sinha SK, Chander Mahesh, Mohan Braj, Yadav Rekha and Thakur  Devesh (2016). Constraints perceived in accessing and utilization of information on improved goat farming: A gender perspective study. Ruminant Science 5(2):277-282.

Vihan VS (2009). Important viral diseases of goats and their prevention. Goat Enterprise. Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Mathura, India. pp 167-75.

Yadav Sarvajeet, Singh Amit, Singh DN and Singh Jai (2018). Factors influencing adoption behavior of the dairy farmers in semi-arid region of Uttar Pradesh. Ruminant Science 7(2):301-303.

Comparison of quality and safety parameters of milk from Mathura city

Comparison of quality and safety parameters of milk from Mathura city

Title: Comparison of quality and safety parameters of milk from Mathura city

Authors: S Ojha, V Pathak, M Goswami, SK Bharti, VP Singh and Tanuja

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):55-60

Cite this reference as: Ojha S, Pathak V, Goswami M, Bharti SK, Singh VP and Tanuja (2019). Comparison of quality and safety parameters of milk from Mathura city. Ruminant Science 8(1):55-60.

Abstract

The present study was carried out to assess the quality and safety of cow, goat and buffalo milk by organoleptic tests, physico-chemical properties, proximate estimation and microbiological studies. The milk samples collected from five different regions of Mathura city. Watery consistency was observed in 50, 18 and 42% of cow, goat and buffalo milk samples respectively, whereas thick, ropy or slimy consistency was observed only in 4, 4 and 20% of cow’s milk only. The COB test was positive in 38, 12 and 20% of cow, goat and buffalo samples respectively. The temperature, pH and specific gravity of all samples were lower than normal prescribed range; however, titrable acidity was higher than normal value in all three species. The moisture content was higher but specific gravity was lower however other proximate parameters showed quite variable values than the normal range. Out of the total, 28 and 20% samples of cow and buffalo milk were positive for formalin adulteration, however, there was no adulteration in goat milk. The microbial load of all milk samples was quite higher than normal prescribed limit in terms of DMC, SPC as well as Coliform and Staphylococcus count.

Reference

AOAC (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Inc.Virginia, USA.

AOAC (1995). Official Method of Analysis. 16th Edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.

APHA (1984). Compendium of Methods for Microbiological Examination of Foods. 2nd Edn, APHA, Washington, DC.

APHA (1985). Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products. INC 15th Edn, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.

Ashwini H (2015). Analysis of adulteration of milk from various dairies in the different area of Amravati. International Research Journal of Science Engineering 3(1):12-14.

Barham GS, Khaskheli M, Soomro AH and Nizamani ZA (2014). Extent of extraneous water and detection of various adulterants in market milk at Mirpurkhas, Pakistan. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 7(3):83-89.

Bureau of Indian Standards (2015). Practical on the technology of milk and milk products.  AgriInfo.in@2015.

De SK (1991). Outlines of Dairy Technology. 1st Edn New Delhi: Oxford University.

DHAD (2017). 19th Livestock Census-All India report, Ministry of Agriculture Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and fisheries. Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi.

Faraz AM, Lateef MI, Mustafa P, Akhtar M, Yaqoob and Rehman S (2013). Detection of adulteration, chemical composition and hygienic status of milk supplied to various canteens of educational institutes and public places in Faisalabad. Journal of Animal and Plant Science 23(1):119-124.

Food and Agricultural Organization (2001). The Lactoperoxidase System of Milk Preservation. Regional Lactoperoxidase Workshop in West Africa. Burkina Faso 17-19.

FAO (1995). Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 1995. Defect Action Level Handbook. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

FSSAI  (2011). Food Safety and Standard Authority of India. National Survey on Adulteration of Milk, New Delhi India 1-13.

Gemechu T, Beyene F and Eshetu M (2015). Physical and chemical quality of raw cow’s milk produced and marketed in Shashemene town, southern Ethopia. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 5(2):7-13.

Immaculata NU, Ndubuezeand A and Winnie AA (2015). Microbial Evaluation of Raw Milk from Dairy Farms in Udi L.G.A Enugu State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 8(3):60-65.

Imran M, Khan H, Hassan SS and Khan R (2008). Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B 9(7):546-551.

ISI (1960). Methods of Test for Dairy Industry-Chemical Analysis of Milk. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

Islam MA, Rashid MH, Kajal MFI and Alam MS (2013). Quality of milk available at local markets of Muktagacha upazila in Mymensingh district. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University 11(1):119-124.

Javid SB, Gadahi JA, Khaskeli M, Bhutto MB, Kumbher S and Panhwar AH (2009). Physical and chemical quality of market milk sold at Tandojam. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 29(1):27-31.

Kumar S, Kumar B, Kumar R, Kumar S and Kanawjia KS (2012). Nutritional features of goat. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 65(4):266-273.

Mahmood A and Usman S (2010). A comparative study on the physicochemical parameters of milk samples collected from buffalo, cow, goat and sheep of Gujarat. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9(12):1192-1197.

Mahoney OF (1988). Rural Dairy Technology- Experiences in Ethiopia. ILCA manual No 4. Dairy Technology Unit. ILCA, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia.

Nirwal S, Pant R and Rai N (2013). Analysis of milk quality, adulteration and mastitis in milk samples collected from different regions of Dehradun. International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology Research 5(2):359-364.

O’Connor CB (1995). Rural Dairy Technology ILRI Training Manual I. International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Olatunji EA, Jubbril AE,  Okpu EO, Olafadehan OA, Ljah UJ and Njidda AA (2012). Bacterial assessment and quality analysis of raw milk sold in Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria. Food Science and Quality Management 7:1-4.

Ramya P, Babu AJ, Reddy ET, Reddy YR and Rao V (2016). Analysis of various physico chemical properties of raw buffalo milk samples marketed in and around Proddatur town, YSR Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Livestock Science 7:30-34.

Shaikh N, Soomro AH, Sheikh SA, Khaskheli M and Marri A (2013). Detection of adulterants and their effect on the quality characteristics of market milk Pakistan. Journal of Agriculture Engineering. Veterinary Science 29(2):175-183. 

Sirnu B, Kumar AV, Kumar MS, Narayana BVL and Rao TM (2012). Assessment of microbiological quality and associated health risks of raw milk sold in and around Hyderabad city. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Science 3(4):609-614.

Snedecor GW and Cochran WG (1994). Statistical Methods. 8th Edn. Iowa State University Press Ames, Iowa, USA.

Tassew A and Eyassu Seifu E (2010). Microbial quality of raw cow’s milk collected from farmers and dairy cooperatives in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha district, Ethiopia. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 21:29-33.

Heterosis of F1 progeny of Sahiwal produced through grading up of non-descript cattle of Jharkhand

Heterosis of F1 progeny of Sahiwal produced through grading up of non-descript cattle of Jharkhand

Title: Heterosis of F1 progeny of Sahiwal produced through grading up of non-descript cattle of Jharkhand

Authors: AK Pandey, Nandani Kumari and SK Bansal

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):53-54

Cite this reference as: Pandey AK, Kumari Nandani and Bansal SK (2019). Heterosis of F1 progeny of Sahiwal produced through grading up of non-descript cattle of Jharkhand. Ruminant Science 8(1):53-54.

Abstract

Data were collected on 1341 Sahiwal progenies born from 2007 to 2012 and maintained by 1239 farmers across twenty-two districts in Jharkhand for average lactation yield was found to be 5.85 lts/day which was compared with the yield of Non-Descript and Sahiwal cattle and the heterosis (hybrid vigour) was found in the F1 generation w.r.t. milk yield and it was found to be 51.15% by mid parent method and -3.09% by better parent heterosis. Further, the paired t-test found that although the cross-bred F1 generation was non-significantly superior to Desi cattle at P-value of 0.05, F1 hybrid is significantly superior (better) than the desi at P-value of 0.02. The result is very important keeping in view the fact that the breed improvement programme of non-descript cattle is highly advocated to increase the milk production of low producing non-descript cattle in Jharkhand.

References

Akhilesh (2016). Average Milk Yield from Indigenous/Non-Descript Cows in India during 2014-15. http://data.gov.in/catalog/basic-animal-husbandry-survey-2015

Bansal SK, Sinha AK, Gokhale SB and Bhagat RL (2017). Factor affecting the age of first calving in Sahiwal cattle under Jharkhand rural condition. International Research Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences 4(7):65-72.

Dandapat A, Banerjee D and Chakraborty D (2010). Genetic study of various productive and reproductive traits of Sahiwal and crossbred cattle (HF x Jersey x Sahiwal) of an organized farm, Veterinary World 3(4):161-168.

GoJ (2014). Dairying in Jharkhand. Directorate of Dairy Development, Department of Animal Husbandry and Fisheries, Govt of Jharkhand:2.

Khan Rehman Z  and Mirza M  (2014). Factors affecting performance of Sahiwal cattle-A review. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 24(1):1-12.

Pandey AK and Kumar S (2003). Constraints in adoption of artificial insemination by dairy farmers in Jharkhand state. Journal of Research 15(2):289-290

Singh CV (2016). Crossbreeding in cattle for milk production: Achievements, challenges and opportunities in India. A review. Advancement in Dairy Research 4:158.

Thorpe W,  Kang’ethe PRO, Mosi  Mwandotto  BAJ and Njuguna P (1993) Crossbreeding Ayrshire, Friesian, and Sahiwal cattle for milk yield and preweaning traits of progeny in the semiarid tropics of Kenya. Journal of Dairy Science 76(7):2001-2002.

Effect of oyster glycogen on cervical mucus microbiota and conception rate in repeat breeding cross bred cows

Effect of oyster glycogen on cervical mucus microbiota and conception rate in repeat breeding cross bred cows

Title: Effect of oyster glycogen on cervical mucus microbiota and conception rate in repeat breeding cross bred cows

Authors: VL Solanki, VK Sharma, PM Chauhan, BI Prajapati, SP Desai and HC Nakhashi

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):49-52.

Cite this reference as: Solanki VL, Sharma VK, Chauhan PM, Prajapati BI, Desai SP and Nakhashi HC (2019). Effect of oyster glycogen on cervical mucus microbiota and conception rate in repeat breeding cross bred cows. Ruminant Science 8(1):49-52.

Abstract

The microbiota of cervical mucus besides conception rate were studied following intrauterine administration of Oyster glycogen @ 500 µg in 500 ml PBS to repeat breeder cross bred cow suffered with endometritis of mild (Group I) and severe grades (Group II). Each group included 10 ailing cows while 6 repeat breeders with mild to severe grade endometritis constituted Group III to serve as control and received only PBS. The pre-treatment bacterial load (5.31±0.22 and 5. 73±0.18 x 108 cfu/ml) was higher significantly (P<0.05) in Group I and II which diminished to 0.89±0.11 and 0.97±0.07  x 108 cfu/ml at post-treatment oestrus  in both groups, respectively; whereas such a decline was absent in control group. The E. coli, Proteus, Streptococci and mixed isolates were identified in all three groups but the pre-treatment spectra of their prevalence varied with an abundance of E. coli, 40 and 30 %, followed by mixed isolates, 30 and 40%, in Group I and II, respectively which in conjuction with other isolates decreased to yield no bacterial growth in 70 and 60 percent sample at post-treatment oestrus in these two groups. Higher overall conception rate (7/10, 70%) with an optimum percentage (40%) to the first service was resulted in Group I than slightly lower percentage in Group II (6/10, 60%) than its absolute failure in control group. It is concluded that Oyster glycogen@500 µg, intra-uterine, effectively cured the endometritis of mild and severe grades in repeat breeders and also improved the conception with slightly higher rate from first service in group of mild endometritis.

References

Agarwal P, Kumar D and Prasad S (2002). Therapeutic evaluation of certain drugs for treatment of endometritis in crossbred cows. Indian Veterinary Journal 79:502-503.

Arora AK, Singh J, Pangaonkar GR and Nand AS (2000). Bacteriological studies on the genital infection in repeat breeder bovines. Indian Journal of Animal Science 15:205-207.

Bhat FA, Bhattacharyya HK and Hussain SA (2014). White side test: A simple and rapid test for evaluation of nonspecific bacterial genital infections of repeat breeding cattle. Veterinary Research Forum 5(3):177-180.

Bhuyan M, Nath KC, Deka BC, Bhuyan D and Goswami S (2015). Efficacy of E. Coli LPS and Oyster glycogen in terms of recovery and consequent conception rate in the treatment of metritis in cows. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research. 6(7):5086-5088.

Biswal SS, Das S and Mohanty DN (2013). Immunomodulatory effect of Oyster glycogen on endometritic crossbred cows. Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 34(2):21-24.

Biswal SS, Das S, Balasubramanian S, Mohanty DN, Sethy K and Dasgupta M (2014). Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin levels in crossbred cows with endometritis following different therapy. Veterinary World 7(12):1066-1070.

Brahmanand, Shrivastava Omprakash and Shukla Satyanidhi (2018). Diagnosing subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cattle using cytobrush technique. Ruminant Science 7(1):87-88.

Cowan ST and Steele (1975). Manual for Identification of Medical Bacteria. Cambridge University Press, London.

Dabas YPS and Maurya SN (1988). A field method for collection of bovine cervical mucus for microbiological studies. Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 9:138-139.

Deori S (2002). Use of bacterial modulins in treatment of endometritis cows. MVSc Thesis submitted to IVRI, Izatnagar (U.P.), India.

Desai SP, Sharma VK, Chauhan PM, Sutaria TV, Suthar BN and Mody SK (2018). Gynaeco-clinical and physical properties of cervical mucus in repeat breeding crossbred cows following E.Coli LPS therapy. Ruminant Science 7(1):77-82.

Foldi JM, Kulcsar A, Pecsi B, Huyghe JA, Lohuisand G and Huszenicza (2006). Bacterial complications of postpartum uterine involution in cattle. Animal Reproduction Science 96:265-281.

Gomez KA and Gomez AA (2012). Statistical Procedure for Agricultural Research. 2nd Edn, Jhon Wieley and Sons Inc, UK.

González TM, Rodrigo Ríos R, Bacteriólogo and Salim Mattar V (2007). Prevalence of bacteria associated with infectious infertility in bovines of Monteria, Colombia. Rev. MVZ Cordoba. 12(2)

Hussain AM and Daniel RCW (1992). Effects of intrauterine infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin in normal cows and in cows with endometritis induced by experimental infection with Streptococcus agalactiae. Theriogenology 37:791-810.

Joshi R, Mudasir M, Sharma D, Saraswat N and Singh R (2013). Bacterial microflora with repeat breeding in crossbred dairy cattle. Indian Veterinary Journal 90(6):52-54.

Madushanka DNN, Ranasingha VM, Bandara AMS, Mayurawansha WRAS and Magamage MPS (2016). Body condition score and locomotion score help to predict reproductive and health performances of dairy cattle. Ruminant Science 5(2):179-186.

Palanisamy M, EzakialNapolean R and Krishnakumar K (2015). Comparative evaluation of therapeutics for management of bovine endometritis- A study of 72 crossbred cows. Intas Polivet 16(2):218-220.

Sheldon IM, Cronin J, Goetze L, Donofrio G and Schuberth HJ (2009). Defining postpartum uterine disease and the mechanisms of infection and immunity in the female reproductive tract in cattle. Biology of Reproduction 81(6):1025-1032.

Singh J, Sidhu S, Dhaliwal G, Pangaonkar G, Nanda A and Grewal A (2000). Effectiveness of lipopolysaccharide as an intrauterine immunomodulator in curing bacterial endometritis in repeat breeding cross-bred cows. Animal Reproduction Science 59(3-4):159-166.

Sirohi NS, Monga DP and Knar SK (1989). Microbiological studies on some reproductive disorders of cattle. Indian Journal of Animal Science 59(5):537-541.

Sood P, Verma S, Katoch RC, Singh M and Vasishta NK (2003). Impact of uterine microbial panorama on the therapeutic efficacy of single injection of PGF2alpha in cows with clinical endometritis. Indian Journal of Animal Science 73(1):68-69.

Sudarshan Kumar, Bhardwaz A and Srivastava AK (2015). White side test- A field test on the cervical mucus of cows for diagnosis of endometritis. Intas Polivet 16(2):207-213.

Wakayo BU, Brar PS, Prabharkar S and Arora AK (2015). Evaluation of prophylactic cloprostenol and E. coli LPS treatment against endometritis in dairy cows and buffaloes. Journal of Reproduction and Infertility 6(1):17-21.

Fertility response to insulin modified Ovsynch protocol in postpartum acyclic buffaloes

Fertility response to insulin modified Ovsynch protocol in postpartum acyclic buffaloes

Title: Fertility response to insulin modified Ovsynch protocol in postpartum acyclic buffaloes

Authors: S Singh, SN Shukla and KK Gupta

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):45-48.

Cite this reference as: Singh S, Shukla SN and Gupta KK (2019). Fertility response to insulin modified Ovsynch protocol in postpartum acyclic buffaloes. Ruminant Science 8(1):45-48.

Abstract

The fertility response to various fixed time artificial insemination protocols was studied in terms of oestrus synchronization and conception rate on sixty postpartum buffaloes. The selected buffaloes were randomly divided into five groups, each comprising twelve (n=12) animals. Buffaloes of group I received GnRH and PGF2α as per Ovsynch protocol [GnRH at day 0 and 9 and PGF2α at day 7]; group II buffaloes received treatment similar to group I except half dose of GnRH at day 9; group III buffaloes received similar treatment as group I except additional administration of insulin (0.25 IU/kg. b.wt.) on day 8, 9 and 10; group IV animals were treated similar to group III except half dose of GnRH at day 9;  group V animals were received treatment similar to group I except replacement of second GnRH injection with insulin on day 8, 9 and 10. Fixed time insemination by frozen semen was done at 60 and 72 h after PGF2α administration in all the buffaloes and pregnancy was confirmed at 60 days post insemination. The results indicated satisfactory and comparable synchronization of oestrus (83.33 to 100%) and conception rate (41.66 to 66.66%) among the various treatment groups. The fertility response following insulin modified Ovsynch based timed AI protocols in postpartum buffaloes were found quite satisfactory and comparable.

References

Baruselli PS, Carvalho NAT, Gimenes LU and Crepaldi GA (2007). Fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo. Italian Journal of Animal Science 6:107-118.                                                                                                                                                                 

Baruselli PS, Madureira EH, Barnabe VH, Barnabe RC, Visintin JA, Oliveira CA and Amaral R (1999). Estudo da dinamica follicular em bufalas submetidas a sincronizacao da ovulacao  para inseminacao artificial em tempo fixo. Arquivos da Faculdade de Veterinaria, UFRGS27: 210.

Derar R, Hussein HA, Fahmy S, El-Sherry TM and Megahed G (2012). Ovarian response and progesterone profile during the Ovsynch protocol in buffalo heifers and post-partum buffalo-cows (Bubalus bubalis). Buffalo Bulletin 31:52-60.

Dudi V, Mehta JS, Chaudhary AK, Kumar Pramod, Kumar Amit and Ruhil Swati (2017). Efficacy of different estrus synchronizing protocols on estrus induction in postpartum lactating dairy cows. Ruminant Science 6(2):337-340.

Fricke PM, Guenther JN and Wiltbank MC (1998). Efficacy of decreasing the dose of GnRH used in a protocol for synchronization of ovulation and timed AI in lactating dairy cows. Theriogenology 50:1275-1284. 

Gong JB, McBride D, Bramley TA and Webb R (1994). Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin insulin-like growths factors-I and insulin on bovine granulosa cell steroidogenesis in vitro. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility110:611-622.

Gupta V, Thakur MS, Agrawal RG, Quadri MA and Shukla SN (2010). Effect of pre-treatment with insulin on ovarian and fertility response in true anestrus buffaloes to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. Buffalo Bulletin 29(3):172-179.

Kumar Amit, Mehta JS, Ruhil Swati and Purohit GN (2018). Effects of different estrous synchronization protocols on estrus and subsequent fertility in cycling cows. Ruminant Science 7(1):83-86.

Kumar PR, Shukla SN, Shrivastava OP, Mishra, A and Purkayastha RD (2013). Therapeutic management of true anoestrus in dairy Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using PMSG with metabolic Hormone. Veterinary Practitioner 14(2):323-324.

Kumar PR, Singh SK, Kharche SD, Govindaraju CS, Behera BK, Shukla SN, Kumar H and Agarwal SK (2014). Anoestrus in cattle and buffalo: Indian perspective. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences 2(3):124-138.

Malik RK, Singh P, Singh IJ, Sharma RK, Phulia SK, Tuli RK and Chandolia RK (2011). Ovarian response and fertility of ovsynch-treated postpartum anestrus Murrah buffaloes. Buffalo Bulletin 30:4.

Palma GA, Muller M and Brem G (1997). Effect of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) at high concentrations on blastocyst development of bovine embryos produced in vitro. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 110:347-353.

Paul V and Prakash BS (2005). Efficacy of the Ovsynch protocol for synchronization of ovulation and fixed time artificial insemination in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology 64:49-106.

Purkayastha RD (2012). Efficacy of GnRH and insulin in true anestrus buffaloes under field conditions. MVSc-AH Thesis submitted to NDVSU, Jabalpur, MP.

Ramoun AA, Serur BH, Fattouh El SM, Darweish SA and Abou El Ghait HA (2012). Enhancing follicular growth as a prerequisite for GnRH treatment of true anestrum in buffalo. Animal Reproduction Science 13:29-35.

Renesis FD, Ronchi G, Guarneri P, Nguyen BX, Presicce GA, Huszenicza G and Scaramuzzi RJ (2005). Efficacy of the Ovsynch protocol for synchronization of ovulation and fixed time artificial insemination in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology 63(7):1824-1831. 

Sharma A, Shukla SN and Agrawal RG (2012). Administration of insulin and GnRH in repeat breeding cross bred cows. Indian Veterinary Journal 89(7):22-24.S

Shukla MK and Garg Abhishek (2012). Efficacy of different route of administration and doses of dinoprost in estrus induction/ synchronization in subestrus murrah buffaloes. Ruminant Science 1(1):63-65.  

Shukla SN, Agarwal SK, Shanker U, Varshney VP and Majumdar AC (2005). Modulation of ovarian response in anestrus cattle treated with Insulin alone and in combination with GnRH. Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 26(2):159-164.

SimpsonRB, Chase CC, Spicer LJ, Vernon RK, Hammond AC and Rac DO (1994). Effect of exogenous insulin on plasma and follicular insulin like growth factor-I, insulin like growth factor binding protein activity, follicular estradiol and progesterone and follicular growth in super-ovulated Angus and Brahman cows. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 102:483-92.

Singh AK, Shukla SP, Nema SP and Shukla MK (2014). Effect of different therapies on estrus expression of subestrus crossbred cows. Ruminant Science 3(2):245-246.

Singh Vijay, Misra AK, Kumar Suresh and Kumar Vijay (2015). Effect of growth factors on in vitro maturation and in vitro culture of buffalo oocytes. Ruminant Science 4(2):219-224.

Stewart RE, Spicer LJ, Hamilton TD and Keefer BE (1995). Effects of insulin like growth factor-I and insulin on proliferation and on basal luteinizing hormone induced steroidogenesis of bovine thecal cells: Involvement of glucose and receptors for insulin-like growth factor-I and luteinizing hormone. Journal of Animal Science 73:3719-3731.

Tanaka T, Nagatani S, Bucholtz DC, Ohkura S, Tsukamura H, Maeda K and Foster DL (2000). Central action of insulin regulates pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in the diabetic sheep model. Biology of Reproduction 62(5):1256-1261.

Yamada K, Nakao T, Nakada K and Matsuda G (2002). Influence of GnRH analogue (fertirelin acetate) doses on synchronization of ovulation and fixed-time artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. Animal Reproduction Science 74:27-34.

Development of SYBR green chemistry based real time PCR for validation of sperm sex ratio in buffalo bull semen

Development of SYBR green chemistry based real time PCR for validation of sperm sex ratio in buffalo bull semen

Title: Development of SYBR green chemistry based real time PCR for validation of sperm sex ratio in buffalo bull semen

Authors: R Kumari, V Kumar, K Batra, A Kumar, N Bansal, A Dalal, S Maan and T Nanda

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):39-44

Cite this reference as: Kumari R, Kumar V, Batra K, Kumar A, Bansal N, Dalal A, Maan S and Nanda T (2019). Development of SYBR green chemistry based real time PCR for validation of sperm sex ratio in buffalo bull semen. Ruminant Science 8(1):39-44.

Abstract

The present study aimed at the development of cost-effective technology for the evaluation of sperm sex ratio in buffalo bull semen. SYBR Green-based Real-Time PCR chemistry was utilized for the development of an assay for sex ratio determination from buffalo bull semen.  Two sets of primers were designed for the amplification of PLP(X chromosome-specific gene) and SRY(Y chromosome-specific gene) genes.  Amplified PLP and SRY gene fragment were cloned in plasmid pJET1.2vector. Standard curves were generated for determination of PCR amplification efficiency. The standards generated a linear relationship with regression coefficient r2=0.996 for PLP and r2=0.993 for SRY. Our results show an insignificant difference in semen sex ratio in unsorted semen (51.7±0.52% X and 49.6±0.60% Y). For the validation of this method, repeatability and reproducibility were tested. The low mean values of CV achieved in repeatability and reproducibility assays demonstrated the high reliability of this new approach for quantifications of sexual chromosome content in semen samples.

References

Beckett TA, Martin RH and Hoar DI (1989).  Assessment of the Sephadex technique for selection of X-bearing sperm by analysis of sperm chromosomes, deoxyribonucleic acid and Y bodies. Fertility and Sterility 52:829-835.

Bustin SA, Benes V, Garson JA, Hellemans J, Huggett J, Kubista M, Mueller R, Nolan T, Pfaffl MW and Shipley GL (2009). The MIQE guidelines: minimum information for publication of quantitative real-time PCR experiments. Clinical Chemistry 55:611-622.

Chandler JE, Canal AM, Paul JB and Moser EB (2002). Collection frequency affects per cent Y-chromosome bearing sperm, sperm head area and quality of bovine ejaculates. Theriogenology 57:1327-46.

Chandler JE, Steinholt-Chenevert HC, Adkinson RW and Moser EB (1998). Sex ratio variation between ejaculates within sire evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, calving and farrowing records. Journal of Dairy Science 81:1855-1867.

Chandler JE, Taylor TM, Canal AL, Cooper RK, Moser EB, McCormick ME, Willard ST, Rycroft HE and Gilbert GR (2007). Calving sex ratio as related to the predicted Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa ratio in bull ejaculates. Theriogenology 67:563-571.

Checa ML, Dunner S and Canon J (2002). Prediction of X- and Y-chromo-some content in bovine sperm by using DNA pools through capillary electrophoresis. Theriogenology 58:1579-86.

Colley A, Buhr M and Golovan SP (2008). Single bovine sperm sex-typing by amelogenin nested PCR. Theriogenology 70:978-983.

Deprez RHL, Fijnvandraat AC, Ruijter JM and Moorman AFM (2002). Sensitivity and accuracy of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using SYBR® Green I depends on cDNA synthesis conditions. Analytical Biochemistry 307:63-69.

Dorak MT (2006). Real-Time PCR. Taylor and Francis Group.

Hatt JK and Loffler FE (2012). Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) detection chemistries affect the enumeration of the Dehalococcoides 16S rRNA gene in groundwater. Journal of Microbiological Methods 88:263-270.

Lee CS, Kim J, Shin SG and Hwang S (2006). Absolute and relative QPCR quantification of plasmid copy number in Escherichia coli. Journal of Biotechnology 123:273-280.

Leong DT, Gupta A, Bai HF, Wan GQ, Yoong LF, Too HP, Chew FT and Hutmacher DW (2007). Absolute quantification of gene expression in biomaterials research using real-time PCR. Biomaterials 28:203-210.

Lobel SM, Pomponio RJ and Mutter GL (1993). The sex ratio of normal and manipulated human sperm quantitated by polymerase chain reaction. Fertility and Sterility 59(2):387-92.

Maleki A F, Alireza H Moussavi, Mohammad R N, Mojtaba T and Seyed AV (2013).  Introducing and validation of SYBR Green Real-Time PCR method to determinate sex ratio in bovine semen. Animal Reproduction Science 140:1-6.

Ogawa S, Yamakawa H, Yamanoi J, Nishida S, Kano Y and Take-shima T (1988). Are fluorescent bodies of Y-spermatozoa detect-able in common with mammalian species? Theriogenology 29(5):1083-1089.

Parati K, Bongioni G, Aleandri R and Galli A (2006). Sex ratio determination in bovine semen: a new approach by quantitative real-time PCR. Theriogenology 66:2202-2209.

Rosenfeld CS and Roberts RM (2004). Maternal diet and other factors affecting offspring sex ratio: A Review. Biology of Reproduction 71:1063-1070.

Seidel Jr GE (2007). Overview of sexing sperm. Theriogenology 68:443-446.

Tan YJ, Mahanem MN and Somarny WWMZ (2015). SYBR® Green quantitative PCR for sex determination of bovine spermatozoa. Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science 43(1):29-39.

Welch Gr and  Johnson LA(1999). Sex preselection: Laboratory validation of the sperm ratio of flow-sorted X- and Y-sperm by sort reanalysis for DNA. Theriogenology 52:1343-1352.

Whittwer CT, Herrmann MG, Moss AA and Rasmussen RP (1997). Continuous fluorescence monitoring of rapid cycle DNA amplification. Biotechniques 22(1): 130-131.

Whyte JJ, Roberts RM and Rosenfeld CS (2007). Fluorescent in situ hybridization for sex chromosome determination before and after fertilization in mice. Theriogenology 67:1022-1031.

Prevention and evaluation of post-caesarean uterine adhesions in torsion affected Mehsana buffaloes

Prevention and evaluation of post-caesarean uterine adhesions in torsion affected Mehsana buffaloes

Title: Prevention and evaluation of post-caesarean uterine  adhesions in torsion affected Mehsana buffaloes

Authors: PM Chauhan, VK Sharma, HC Nakhashi and TV Sutaria

Source: Ruminant Science (2019)-8(1):35-38.

Cite this reference as: Chauhan PM, Sharma VK, Nakhashi HC and Sutaria TV (2019). Prevention and evaluation of post-caesarean uterine adhesions in torsion affected Mehsana buffaloes. Ruminant Science 8(1):35-38.

 Abstract

Twenty seven torsion affected Mehsana buffaloes equally divided in three groups were studied for prevention of uterine adhesions by applying 1% Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (SCMC) @ 7 ml/kg b. wt. (Group-A), 2% SCMC @ 14 ml/kg b. wt (Group-B) and the hyaluronic acid @ 0.2 mg/kg b. wt. (Group-C) on the sutured uterus following caesarean whereas six buffaloes did not receive any treatment and were kept as control (Group-D). The SCMC was also advocated intraperitoneal to achieve hydro-floatation effect. The efficacy of treatments was assessed clinically by presence and severity of adhesions on day 45-50 post-caesarean as well as by estimation of blood plasma fibrinogen initially on day of hospitalization, immediately after delivery of fetus followed by 24 h later to fetal delivery and thereafter on day 3, 5 and 10 of post-caesarean. 1% SCMC and hyaluronic acid treatments were equally effective in preventing post-operative uterine adhesions in 42.86 % buffaloes with an additional advantage of higher percentage of mild type adhesions (75%) resulted from hyaluronic acid group than those of 1% SCMC group (50%). The plasma fibrinogen also did not differ significantly between these two groups specially after 24 h of fetal delivery (265.14±89.87 and 566.43±214.41 mg/dl), day 3 (442.00±219.23 and 993.43±262.67 mg/dl and subsequently on day 5 (631.00±184.00 and 726.86±187.80 mg/dl) whereas in 2% SCMC group, the fibrinogen concentration remained significantly higher than other treatment and control groups  besides a many fold rise in this group on day 3 and 5 (2452.86±594.90 and 1729.00±343.55 mg/dl) as compared to its preceding concentration after 24 h of fetal delivery (892.71±185.15 mg/dl). It is concluded that hyaluronic acid and 1% SCMC treatment prevented the post-operative uterine adhesions equally and efficiently in torsion affected buffaloes.

References

Dhindsa SS, Dhaliwal GS and Ghuman SPS (2010). Prevention of uterine adhesion formation following caesarean section in bovine. Indian Journal of Animal Science 80(7):626-628.

Dhindsa SS, Dhaliwal GS and Ghuman SPS (2008). Biochemical alterations in bovines due to caesarean operation with reference to suture material and intra-peritoneal lubricant. Indian Journal of Animal Science 78:1082-1085.

Eckersall PD and Bell R (2010). Acute phase proteins: biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine. Veterinary Journal 185:23-27.

Hendersons RA (1982). Conrolling peritoneal adhesions. Veterinary Surgery 11:30-33.

Holtz G and Baker ER (1980). Inhibition of peritoneal reformation after analysis with thirty-two per cent dextram 70. Fertility and Steritility 34:394-96.

Karthick C, Selvaraju M, Napolean RE, and Doraisamy KA (2016).  Haematological changes during uterine torsion and detorsion in buffaloes. Indian Veterinary Journal 93(10):22-25.

Leach RE, Burns JW, Dawe EJ, SmithBarbour MD and Diamond MP (1998). Reduction of postsurgical adhesion formation in the rabbit uterine horn model with use of hyaluronate/ carboxymethylcellulose gel. Fertility and Sterility 69(3):415-418.

McSherry BJ, Horney FD and Degroot JJ (1970). Plasma fibrinogen levels in normal and sick cows. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 34:191.

Moll HD, Schumacher J, Wright JC and Spano JS (1991). Evaluation of sodium carboxy methyl cellulose for prevention of experimentally induced abdominal adhesions in ponies. American Journal of Veterinary Science 52:88-91.

Moll HD, Wolfe DF, Schumacher J and Wright JC (1992). Evaluation of sodium carboxy methyl cellulose for prevention of adhesions after uterine trauma in ewes. American Journal of Veterinary Research 58:1454-1456.

Murata H, Shimada N and Yoshioka M (2004). Current research on acute phase proteins in veterinary diagnosis: An overview. Veterinary Journal 168:28-40.

Patel SC, Patel MP, Desai SB and Nakhashi HC (2012). Haematic mummification associated with uterine torsion in a Kankrej cow. Ruminant Science 1(2):199-200.

Prathaban S and Gnanaprakasam V (1990). Study on plasma fibrinogen levels on Indian crossbred cows in health and disease. Indian Journal of Animal Science 58:293-97.

Purohit GN, Mehta JS, Sharma Sunanda, Shekher Chandra, Kumar Pramod , Kumar Amit, Raiya Sunil, Ruhil Swati and  Gaur Mitesh (2013). Uterine torsion in buffaloes: A retrospective analysis of 52 cases. Ruminant Science 2(2):219-222.

Roberts SJ (1971). Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases. 2nd Edn, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.

Saraswat Chandrashekher, Dholpuria Sandeep, Jhamb Dinesh, Gaur Mitesh and Sharma  Sunandha (2015). Clinico-obstetrical approaches on uterine torsion cases in Surti buffalo of tribal area of southern Rajasthan. Ruminant Science 4(2):225-230.

Schalm CW, Jain NC and Carroll EJ (1975). Veterinary Haematology. 3rd Edn, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.

Singh J (1996). Studies on the uterine adhesions following caesarean operation in buffaloes. MVSc Thesis submitted to PAU, Ludhiana, India.

Singh J, Dhaliwal GS, Jagir S and Sharma RD (2002). Efficacy of different treatments in preventing uterine adhesions following caesarean section to relieve dystocia in buffaloes. Indian Journal of Animal Science 72:648-651.

Snedecor GW and Cochran WG (1994). Statistical Methods. 8th Edn, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.

Sutaria TV, Kapadiya PS, Nakhashi HC, Chauhan PM, Suthar BN and Sharma VK (2015). Study on treatment efficacy of uterine torsion in mehsana buffaloes. Ruminant Science 4(1):109-111.

Wuijckhuise-Sjouke LA (1984). Plasma fibrinogen concentration as a indicator of the presence and severity of inflammatory disease in horses and cattle. Tijdschrift voor Diegeeskunda 109:809-72.