Pathology of adenomyosis in the female genital tract of cattle

Pathology of adenomyosis in the female genital tract of cattle

Title: Pathology of adenomyosis in the female genital tract of cattle

Authors: Anita Rathore, Hemant Dadhich, Sunita Rani and Rohitash Dadhich

Source: Ruminant Science (2016)-5(2):263-264.

Cite this reference as: Rathore Anita, Dadhich Hemant, Rani Sunita and Dadhich Rohitash (2016). Pathology of adenomyosis in the female genital tract of cattle. Ruminant Science 5(2):263-264.


A total of 390 samples of female genital tract were examined from cattle of different age and breeds, of which 156 were found to have various abnormalities. Out of these, 64 samples revealed pathological lesions in the uterus, of which 1 case (0.64%) was of adenomyosis. Microscopically, foci of displaced endometrial glands were noticed either in single or numerous groups, superficial or deep extending into the myometrium and endometrial glands were present in myometrium.


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Rathore A, Dadhich H, Rani S and Dadhich A (2015). Occurrence of foetal mummification in cattle. Ruminant Science 4(2):243-244.

Jubb KVF, Kennedy PC and Palmer N (2007). Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3, 5th Edn, Academic Press Inc, California.

Renal abcessess in sheep (Ovis aries)

Renal abcessess in sheep (Ovis aries)

Title: Renal abcessess in sheep (Ovis aries)

Authors: Sarita, H Dadhich, M Mathur, A Dadhich and VK Dhaka

Source: Ruminant Science (2016)-5(2):261-262.

Cite this reference as: Sarita, Dadhich H, Mathur M, Dadhich A and Dhaka VK (2016). Renal abcessess in sheep (Ovis aries). Ruminant Science 5(2):261-262.


The present was undertaken during period of June to December, 2015 to elucidate the occurrence of renal abscesses in sheep. A total number of 1,298 specimens of kidneys of sheep were examined irrespective of age, sex and breeds in North-West Rajasthan. Out of these, 211 specimens of kidneys suspected for abnormalities were further processed for histopathological examination. This condition was recorded in 4 (1.89 per cent) cases. Grossly, kidneys showed multiple small abscesses, these were firm, white and slightly raised. Cut section revealed creamy inspissated granular pus surrounded by thick coat of fibrous tissue. Microscopically, multiple abscesses were seen in the cortical regions which contain thick cellular detritus in the centre surrounded by cellular infiltration consisting mainly lymphocytes and macrophages with few polymorphs at the inner margin and encapsulated by a well defined connective tissue capsule.


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Mathur M, Dadhich H, Khare S and Singh AP (2012). Occurrence of tubulo-nephrosis in kidneys of sheep: histopathological study. Ruminant Science 1(2):165-166.

Sankarappa EV and Ramarao P (1982): Renal lesions in sheep and goats of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Veterinary Journal 59:705- 708.

Saini K (2015). Occurrence and pathology of various pathological conditions of urinary system in camel. MVSc Thesis submitted to RAJUVAS, Bikaner.

Sarita, Dadhich H, Mathur M, Dadhich A and Dhaka VK (2016). Histopathological observations of renal amyloidosis in sheep (Ovis aries). Ruminant Science 5(1):69-70.

Sriraman PK and Rao PR (1980). Renal lesions in sheep of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Veterinary Journal 56:971- 978.

Incidence and haemato-biochemical studies on goats naturally infected with coccidiosis in semi arid region, India

Incidence and haemato-biochemical studies on goats naturally infected with coccidiosis in semi arid region, India

Title: Incidence and haemato-biochemical studies on goats naturally infected with coccidiosis in semi arid region, India

Authors: Alok Kumar Singh, D Shanker, PK Rout, A Kumar, Nitika Sharma and Pradeep Kumar

Source: Ruminant Science (2016)-5(2):257-260.

Cite this reference as: Singh Alok Kumar, Shanker D, Rout PK, Kumar A, Sharma Nitika and Kumar Pradeep (2016). Incidence and haemato-biochemical studies on goats naturally infected with coccidiosis in semi arid region, India. Ruminant Science 5(2):257-260.


The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and haemato-biochemical studies on goats naturally infected with coccidiosis in a semi arid region, India. Out of the 153 faecal samples collected directly from the rectum of goats and examined for the presence of oocysts 126 (82.35%) were found to be positive for coccidian oocysts. Eimeria species were identified after sporulation of oocysts present in the faecal by keeping in a thin layer of 2.5% aqueous potassium dichromate for 2-8 days at 280 C in laboratory. Based on morphometric studies, a total of five Eimeria species were identified, i.e. E. arloingi (44.12%), E. ninakohliakimovae (27.62%), E. hirci (15.51%), E. christenseni (8.62%) and E. caprina (4.62%). Haematological changes include a significant (P>0.05) reduction in erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content. Also, there was a significant leucocytosis. Biochemical analysis showed a significant decrease of glucose and alkaline phosphatase.


Anumol J, Tresamol PV, Vinodkumar K and Saseendranath MR (2012). Haemato biochemical alterations in goats infected with coccidiosis. Tamilnadu Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science 8(3):163-165.

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Cai KZ and Bai JL (2009). Infection intensity of gastrointestinal nematodosis and coccidiosis of sheep raised under three types of feeding and management regimes in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. Small Ruminant Research 85:111-115.

Cavalcante  ACR, Teixeira M, Monteiro JP and  Lopesb  CWG (2012). Eimeria species in dairy goats in Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology 183:356-358.

Chartier C and Paraud C (2012). Coccidiosis due to Eimeria in sheep and goats-A review. Small Ruminant Research 103:84-92.

Chedge R, Dixit AK and Dixit Pooja (2013). Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats at Adhartal, Jabalpur.  Ruminant Science 2(2):155-156.

Dai YB, Liu XY, Liu M and Tao JP (2006). Patogenic effects of the coccidium Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae in goats. Veterinary Research Communication 30:149-160.

Dixit Pooja, Rao MLV, Dixit AK and Shukla PC (2016). Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goat kids in Jabalpur.  Ruminant Science 5(1):39-42.

Eckert J, Taylor M, Catchpole J, Licois D, Coudert, P and Bucklar H (1995). Morphological characteristics of oocysts. In: Biotechnology Guidelines of Techniques in Coccidiosis Research. Eds: J Eckert, R Braun, M Shirley and P Coudert. COST 89/820. Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg. pp103-119.

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Hashemnia M, Khodakaram-Tafti  A, Razavi S M and Nazift S (2014). Haematological and serum biochemical analyses in experimental caprine coccidosis. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 38(1):116-123.

Jalila A, Dorny P, Sani R, Salim NB and Vercruysse  J (1998). Coccidial infections of goats in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Veteirnary Parasitology 74:165-172.

Jubb KVF, Kennedy PC and Palmer N (2007). Pathology of Domestic Animals. 5th Edn, Academic Press Inc, London, pp 264-267.

Kheirandish R, Saeid R, Fard N and  Yadegari Z (2014). Prevalence and pathology of coccidiosis in goats in southeastern Iran. Journal of Parasitic Disease 38(1):27-31.

Khillare BS and Narladkar BW (2013). Species of Eimeria causing coccidiosis in caprines of Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 27(2):117-122.

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Nath R (2005). Change in blood profile of Assam local goat infected with Eimeria species. Indian Journal Small Ruminant 11(1):101-102.

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Rehman TU, Khan MN, Khan IA and Ahmad M (2011). Epidemiology and economic benefits of treating goat coccidiosis. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 31(3):227-230.

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Comparative evaluation of acrosomal integrity of bull spermatozoa by two staining techniques

Comparative evaluation of acrosomal integrity of bull spermatozoa by two staining techniques

Title: Comparative evaluation of acrosomal integrity of bull spermatozoa by two staining techniques

Authors: Nadeem Shah, HP Yadav, RK Gupta, DS Chauhan, Vijay Singh, Sarvajeet Yadav and DK Swain

Source: Ruminant Science (2016)-5(2):253-256.

Cite this reference as: Shah Nadeem, Yadav HP, Gupta RK, Chauhan DS, Singh Vijay, Yadav Sarvajeet and Swain DK (2016). Comparative evaluation of acrosomal integrity of bull spermatozoa by two staining techniques. Ruminant Science 5(2):253-256.



Present study evaluated the variations existing between the techniques of evaluation of acrosomal integrity in bull spermatozoa. Acrosomal integrity was evaluated in forty ejaculates collected from four Haraina bulls using traditional Giemsa staining (n=20) and fluorescent FITC-PSA labeling (n=20). Evaluation of intact acrosome and damaged acrosome

followed by different types of acrosomal damage (primary, secondary and tertiary) were carried out using these techniques. Results revealed that FITC-PSA labeling technique is better as compared to Giemsa in evaluation of intact as well different types of acrosomal damage. Simultaneously, we noted significantly better analysis of acrosomal intactness on Poly-L-Lysine coated slides as compared to general glass slides. The ease of preparation of smears and their evaluation was better on Poly-L-Lysine coated slides as compared to general glass slides. From the study, it was concluded that, evaluation of spermatozoa for identification of different types of acrosomal damage may be preferred to be evaluated by FITC-PSA as compared to Giemsa and Poly-L-Lysine coated slides may be preferred for better analysis of results. The study is beneficial to the scientific community in terms of staining as well as better interpretation of acrosomal status in animals.


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Kumar A, Swain DK, Kumar T, Kumar J, Yadav S and Pandey V (2013). Effect of age and season on acrosomal integrity of barbari buck sperm. Ruminant Science 2(2):163-166.

Swain DK, Swarnkar P, Kumar J and Yadav S (2012). Evaluation of in vitro longevity of caprine cauda epididymal sperm at different storage intervals of time. Indian Journal of Animal Science 82:1347-1350.

Swain DK, Yadav S and Singh SK (2017). Effect of four different in vitro incubation temperatures on functionaldynamics, process of capacitation and apoptosis in goat spermatozoa. Small Ruminant Research 147:120-124.

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Effect of melatonin on reproductive efficiency in goat during non breeding season

Effect of melatonin on reproductive efficiency in goat during non breeding season

Title: Effect of melatonin on reproductive efficiency in goat during non breeding season

Authors: Mahak Singh, SKGhosh, JK Prasad, GK Das, G Kadirvel, RK Avasthe and Ashok Kumar

Source: Ruminant Science (2016)-5(2):247-251.

Cite this reference as: Singh Mahak, Ghosh SK, Prasad JK, Das GK, Kadirvel G, Avasthe RK and Kumar Ashok (2016). Effect of melatonin on reproductive efficiency in goat during non breeding season. Ruminant Science 5(2):247-251.


The present experiment was designed to study the effect of single subcutaneous melatonin (MLT) administration on induction of estrus and pregnancy establishment in Singharey (Sikkim local) goats during non-breeding season. Forty clinically healthy female goats of 2-5 years of age, had kidded at least once were selected and grouped as: Group (I): single subcutaneous injection of sterilized corn oil as control (n=10), Group (II): single subcutaneous injection of MLT @ 10 mg in sterilized corn oil (n=10), Group (III): single subcutaneous injection of MLT @ 20 mg in sterilized corn oil (n=10) and Group (IV): single subcutaneous injection of MLT @ 40 mg in sterilized corn oil (n=10). Estrus induction response was 20%, 80%, 100% and 30% in group-I, II, III and IV, respectively. Estrus induction interval (in days) was 16±5.00, 11.25±1.96, 14.20±0.77 and 13.60±4.06 in group-I, II, III and IV, respectively. Kidding rate was 100% in group-I, II and IV while it was 80% in group-III. The litter size (median) was 1.5, 2, 1.5 and 2 in group-I, II, III and IV, respectively.

Total live kids born were 3 in group-I, 16 in group-II, 13 in group-III and 5 in group-IV. Therefore, it can be concluded that single subcutaneous injection of melatonin @ 10 mg was an effective strategy for inducing out of season breeding in this breed with increased fecundity.


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Verma NK, Aggarwal AK, Sharma R, Dangi PS and Bhutia  NT (2015). Phenotypic characterization, biometry and management of Singharey goat of Sikkim. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 85(7):810-812.

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Effect of follicle size on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity of buffalo oocytes

Effect of follicle size on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity of buffalo oocytes

Title: Effect of follicle size on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity of buffalo oocytes

Authors: MK Shukla, OP Shrivastava, D Kumar, SN Shukla, Neera Jain and BC Sarkhel

Source: Ruminant Science (2016)-5(2):243-245.

Cite this reference as: Shukla MK, Shrivastava OP, Kumar D, Shukla SN, Jain Neera and Sarkhel BC (2016). Effect of follicle size on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity of buffalo oocytes. Ruminant Science 5(2):243-245.


Considering the insufficiency of morphological assessment for evaluation of oocytes, other evaluation parameters like glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity are becoming popular. The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of follicular size on G6PDH activity of buffalo oocytes. The overall average of BCB+ (inactive G6PDH) and BCB- (active G6PDH) COCs in the present study was recorded to be 51.68±1.25 and 48.32±1.25%, respectively. The BCB+ COCs in large follicle (56.42±0.47) was significantly (p<0.01) higher as compared to small follicles (45.82±0.56). The reverse was observed in BCB- COCs where significantly (p<0.01) higher proportion of BCB- COCs was recorded in small follicle (54.18±0.56) as compared to large follicles (43.58±0.47), thus indicating better developmental competence of oocytes derived from large follicles.


Alm H, Torner H, Lohrke B, Viergutz T, Ghoneim IM and Kanitz W (2005). Bovine blastocyst development rate in vitro is influenced by selection of oocytes by brilliant cresyl blue staining before IVM as indicator for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. Theriogenology  63(8): 2194-2205.

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Ghanem N, Hoelker M, Rings F, Jennen D, Tholen E, Sirard MA, Torner H Kanitz W, Schellander K and Tesfaye D (2007). Alterations in transcript abundance of bovine oocytes recovered at growth and dominance phase of first follicular wave. Development Biology 7:90-95.

Heleil B and Fayed M (2010). Developmental competence of buffalo oocytes from follicles of different diameters selected by brilliant cresyl blue staining. Global Veterinaria 4(2):176-184.

Manjunatha BM,  Gupta PSP, Devaraj M, Ravindra JP and Nandi S (2007). Selection of developmentally competent buffalo oocytes by brilliant cresyl blue staining before IVM. Theriogenology 68 (9):1299-1304.

Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh A, Held E, Rings F, Ghanem N, Salilew-Wondim D and Tesfaye D (2013). Developmental competence of equine oocytes: Impacts of zona pellucida birefringence and maternally derived transcript expression. Reproduction Fertility and Development 28(3):678-684.

Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh A, Veshkini A, Athena H, Fatemeh JA, Zhandi M, Abazarikia HA, Cinar MU, Soleimani M and Eduardo LG (2014). Association of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity with oocyte cytoplasmic lipid content, developmental competence, and expression of candidate genes in a sheep model. Journal of Assistant Reproduction and Genetics 31(8):1089-1098.

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Shabankareh HK, Azimi G and Torki M (2014). Developmental competence of bovine oocytes selected based on follicle size and using the brilliant cresol blue (BCB) test. Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine 12(11):771-784.

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Effects of different oxygen concentrations on developmental potential of goat tetraploid embryos

Effects of different oxygen concentrations on developmental potential of goat tetraploid embryos

Title: Effects of different oxygen concentrations on developmental potential of goat tetraploid embryos

Authors: JK Agrawal, A Saxena, SD Kharche, A Kumar, S Yadav and RP Pandey

Source: Ruminant Science (2016)-5(2):239-242.

Cite this reference as: Agrawal JK, Saxena A, Kharche SD, Kumar A, Yadav S and Pandey RP (2016). Effects of different oxygen concentrations on developmental potential of goat tetraploid embryos. Ruminant Science 5(2):239-242


The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of different O2 concentrations on the developmental potential of tetraploid embryos. For production of tetraploid embryo, 2-cell embryos were obtained by the method of in vitro fertilization. The produced 2-cell embryos were exposed to different O2 concentrations at 1.2 kV/cm field strength and 4 μs pulse duration and their fusion rate and subsequent developmental stages were compared. When the effect of different oxygen concentrations was evaluated, it was observed that maximum cleavage (82.35%) was recorded at the 5% oxygen concentration and 4.76% of the embryos developed upto the blastocyst stage. It was concluded that 5% oxygen concentration was the most suitable treatment for production of tetraploid embryos.


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Mating behavior of one humped camel in relation to body condition score

Mating behavior of one humped camel in relation to body condition score

Title: Mating behavior of one humped camel in relation to body condition score

Authors: Sajjan Singh, Sumant Vyas, Kashi Nath and NV Patil

Source: Ruminant Science (2016)-5(2):235-237.

Cite this reference as: Singh Sajjan, Vyas Sumant, Nath Kashi and Patil NV (2016).Mating behavior of one humped camel in relation to body condition score. Ruminant Science 5(2):235-237.


A total of 11 breeding male camels having Body Condition Score (BCS) between 3.0 and 3.5 were selected for breeding of female Camels (n=65) having BCS between 2.5 to 4.0. The period of mating was from December to March 2015. Each male camel was enabled to mate with minimum 3 to maximum 9 female camels. Physical changes and reduction in body weight was observed in all breeding camels except few camels whose frequency of mating was restricted. The females having exceptionally high body condition score were found to be inconvenient for mating and bulls were reluctant to mount such females. Repeated mounting and demounting by males is common in high body BCS females. The study found that females having BCS between 2.5 and 3.5 were comfortable due to prominence of coxial and Ischial tuberocity leading to locking of chest pad between these and rear side of hump. The present findings indicated that high BCS females were not convenient for mating and chest pad played role in mating behavior by providing a lock between hump and ischial tuberocity.


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Plasma leptin and biochemical profile around parturition in primiparous Sahiwal cows

Plasma leptin and biochemical profile around parturition in primiparous Sahiwal cows

Title: Plasma leptin and biochemical profile around parturition in primiparous Sahiwal cows

Authors: Vijay Pandey, Rajesh Nigam, Rambachan, Pawanjit Singh, SP Singh and AK Madan

Source: Ruminant Science (2016)-5(2):227-233.

Cite this reference as: Pandey Vijay, Nigam Rajesh, Rambachan, Singh Pawanjit, Singh SP and Madan AK (2016). Plasma leptin and biochemical profile around parturition in primiparous Sahiwal cows. Ruminant Science 5(2):227-233.


For studying the role of leptin hormone around parturition and to evaluate its association with other biochemical profile in high yielding primiparous Indian cow, six primiparous pregnant Sahiwal cows of same age group and body condition score were selected. The blood samples were collected from these cows on 30 day prepartum, day of parturition and on 30 day postpartum and plasma was harvested. The plasma samples were further analyzed for levels of leptin hormone, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total plasma protein (TPP), albumin, urea, creatinine, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The results of plasma leptin, TG, cholesterol, HDL and LDL showed highest level of leptin in late pregnancy (-30 days) which significantly declined to nadir at parturition then rose around to prepartum levels at 30 days postpartum. The NEFA concentration increased from pregnancy to calving and later decreased to achieve prepartum

levels during lactation. The levels of plasma TPP, albumin, globulin and P were highest in pregnancy which declined to nadir at parturition and remained almost unchanged during lactation. Creatinine and Ca concentrations remained unchanged from pregnancy to parturition and then significantly reduced during lactation while urea was significantly lower during pregnancy and rose in lactation. The overall correlation of LEP with biochemical profile revealed positive correlation with TG (r = 0.8), cholesterol (r = 0.69), HDL (r = 0.67), LDL (r = 0.52), globulin (r = 0.56) and P (r = 0.59) while negative correlation with NEFA (r = -0.90) and AG ratio. In addition leptin showed negative correlation with creatinine during pregnancy and lactation. In conclusion, the variations in leptin hormone and other biochemical profiles from pregnancy to lactation, and association of leptin hormone with biochemical profile suggesting its significant physiological role in energy metabolism, body mass and immunity of dairy cows during this crucial period.


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