26

26-Title: Haematic mummification associated with uterine torsion in a Kankrej cow

Authors: SC Patel, MP Patel, SB Desai and HC Nakhashi

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):199-200.

How to cite this manuscript: Patel SC, Patel MP, Desai SB and Nakhashi HC (2012). Haematic mummification associated with uterine torsion in a Kankrej cow. Ruminant Science 1(2):199-200.

References

Christianson WT (1992). Stillbirths, mummies, abortions, and early embryonic death in swine. Veterinary Clinics North America: Swine Reproduction 8:623-639.

Hailat NQ, Lafi SQ, Al-Ani Al-Darraji F (1997). Ovine fetal maceration. Small Animal Research 25:89-91.

Johnston SD and Raksil S (1987). Fetal loss in the dog and cat. Veterinary Clinics North America: Small Animal Practice 17:535-554.

Lefebvre RC, Saint-Hilaire E, Morin I, Couto GB, Francoz D (2009): Retrospective case study of fetal mummification in cows that did not respond to prostaglandin F2a treatment. Canadian Veterinary Journal 50:71-76.

Meyers PJ and Varner DD (1991). Abortion of a mummified fetus associated with short uterine body in a mare. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 198:1768-1770.

 Noakes DE, Parkinson TJ and England GCW (2009). Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 9th Edn, Saunders Elsevier Ltd, England.  

Patel MP, Patel SC, Patel JB, Suthar BN, Nakhashi HC and Sharma VK (2012). Fetal mummification in buffalo-A case report. Ruminant Science 1(1):93-94.

Roberts SJ (1986). Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases. (Theriogenology), Woodstock, VT, Published by Roberts SJ pp 231-217.   

Singh J and Patil DB (1993). The abdominal wall and peritoneum. In: Ruminant Surgery. Eds RPS Tyagi and J singh, Ist Edn, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, pp 175-182.

Tutt CLC (1997). Postpartum mummification of a co-twin fetus in a Cameroon dwarf goat doe.  Veterinary Record 140:229-231.

25

25-Title: Dystocia due to dicephalus distomus monster in a Mehsani buffalo

Authors: BR Patel, GM Siddiquee, VK Mevada, KJ Ankuya and JS Patel

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):197-198.

How to cite this manuscript: Patel BR, Siddiquee GM, Mevada VK, Ankuya KJ and Patel JS (2012). Dystocia due to dicephalus distomus monster in a Mehsani buffalo. Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):197-198.

Reference

Bugalia NS, Biswas RK and Sharma RD (2001). Diplopagus sternopagus monster in Indian water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis).  Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 22(2):102-104.

Fazili MR (2012).Dicephalus atlodymus monster calf delivered by cesarean section-A case report. Ruminant Science 1(1):97-98.

Honnappagol SS, Tandla MH and Ramkrishna V (2005). Thoraco-abdominopygophagus fetal monster in non descript cow. Indian Veterinary Journal 82:441.

Noden DM and Lahunta AD (1984). The Embryology of Domestic Animals-Developmental Mechanisms and Malformation, 1st Edn, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, London.

Pandit RK, Pandey SK and Agrawal RG (1994). A Case of dystocia due to diplopagus monster in goat. Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 15(1):82.

Roberts SJ (1971). Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases. Scientific book agency, Calcutta, India p 255.

Sloss V and Dufty JH (1980). Hand Book of Bovine Obstetrics. Williams and Wilkins. Baltimore, London.

Solanki GB, Patel HA, Patel BR, Patel CN and Siddiquee GM (2011). Dystocia due to conjoined twin monster with arthrogryposis in crossbreed cow: A case report. Indian Journal of Field Veterinarian 7(1):65-66.

Tandle MK and Honnappagol SS (1993). A monostomus dicephalus male buffalo calf monster. Indian Journal of Animal Research 14(2):128.

26-Title: Haematic mummification associated with uterine torsion in a Kankrej cow

Authors: SC Patel, MP Patel, SB Desai and HC Nakhashi

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):199-200.

How to cite this manuscript: Patel SC, Patel MP, Desai SB and Nakhashi HC (2012). Haematic mummification associated with uterine torsion in a Kankrej cow. Ruminant Science 1(2):199-200.

References

Christianson WT (1992). Stillbirths, mummies, abortions, and early embryonic death in swine. Veterinary Clinics North America: Swine Reproduction 8:623-639.

Hailat NQ, Lafi SQ, Al-Ani Al-Darraji F (1997). Ovine fetal maceration. Small Animal Research 25:89-91.

Johnston SD and Raksil S (1987). Fetal loss in the dog and cat. Veterinary Clinics North America: Small Animal Practice 17:535-554.

Lefebvre RC, Saint-Hilaire E, Morin I, Couto GB, Francoz D (2009): Retrospective case study of fetal mummification in cows that did not respond to prostaglandin F2a treatment. Canadian Veterinary Journal 50:71-76.

Meyers PJ and Varner DD (1991). Abortion of a mummified fetus associated with short uterine body in a mare. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 198:1768-1770.

 Noakes DE, Parkinson TJ and England GCW (2009). Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 9th Edn, Saunders Elsevier Ltd, England.  

Patel MP, Patel SC, Patel JB, Suthar BN, Nakhashi HC and Sharma VK (2012). Fetal mummification in buffalo-A case report. Ruminant Science 1(1):93-94.

Roberts SJ (1986). Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases. (Theriogenology), Woodstock, VT, Published by Roberts SJ pp 231-217.   

Singh J and Patil DB (1993). The abdominal wall and peritoneum. In: Ruminant Surgery. Eds RPS Tyagi and J singh, Ist Edn, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, pp 175-182.

Tutt CLC (1997). Postpartum mummification of a co-twin fetus in a Cameroon dwarf goat doe.  Veterinary Record 140:229-231.

20

20-Title: Oesophageal diverticulam in Mahesana buffalo – A case report

Authors: JB Patel, PB Patel, HA Avasthi and MS Gami

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(1):89-90.

How to cite this manuscript: Patel JB, Patel PB, Avasthi HA and Gami MS (2012). Oesophageal diverticulam in Mahesana buffalo-A case report. Ruminant Science 1(1):89-90.

References

Green EM and Macfadder KE (1996). Esophageal disorder of the horse. In: Large Animal Internal  Medicine. Eds BS Bardford, 2nd Edn Mosby, Missouri pp 698-710.

McGavin MD and Anderson NV (1975). Projectile expectoration associated with an esophageal diverticulum in a cow. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 166(3):247-248.

Prasad A, Dharmaceelan AS, George RS and William BJ (2008). Congenital esophageal diverticulum in a kid. Tamilnadu Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 14(1):29.

Singh AP and Nigam JM (1980). Radiography of bovine oesophageal disorders. Modern Veterinary Practitioner 61: 867.

Singh J, Singh AP and Patil DB (1993). The digestive system. In: Ruminant Surgery. 1st Edn, Eds RPS Tyagi and J Singh, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi. pp 194-195.

21

21-Title: Radiographic diagnosis and surgical management of cystic odontoma in a buffalo

Authors: S Purohit, V Malik, D Kumar, P Katiyar, G Kumar, RP Pandey and B Singh

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(1):91-92.

How to cite this manuscript: Purohit S, Malik V, Kumar D, Katiyar P, Kumar G, Pandey RP and Singh B (2012). Radiographic diagnosis and surgical management of cystic odontoma in a buffalo. Ruminant Science 1(1):91-92.

References

Singh J, Singh AP and Patil DB (1993). The digestive system. In: Ruminant Surgery. Eds RPS Tygi and Jit Singh. Ist Edn, CBS Publisher and Distributors, New Delhi pp 183-224.

Theilen GH and Madewell BR (1979). In: Veterinary Cancer Medicine, Lea and Febiger, Phildelphia pp 312-315.

Thoma KH and Goldman HM (1946). Odontogenic tumours: A classification based on observations of the epithelial, mesenchymal and mixed varieties. American Journal of Pathology 22:433.

Tiwari SK, Sharda R, Hirpurkar SD, Jogi S, Jain P and Nath K (2009). Surgical management of extensive odontoma in she buffalo.  Indian Veterinary Journal 86(2):196-197.

23

23-Title: A rare case of conjoined twin monster in Mehsana buffalo-A case report

Authors: BR Patel, GM Siddiquee, SB Desai, KG Solanki and GB Solanki

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(1):95-96.

How to cite this manuscript: Patel BR, Siddiquee GM, Desai SB, Solanki KG and Solanki GB (2012). A rare case of conjoined twin monster in Mehsana buffalo-A case report. Ruminant Science 1(1):95-96.

References

Bugalia NS, Biswas RK and Sharma RD (2001). Diplopagus sternopagus monster in Indian water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis).  Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 22(2):102-104.

Honnappagol SS, Tandla MH and Ramkrishna V (2005). Thoraco-abdominopygophagus fetal monster in non descript cow. Indian Veterinary Journal 82:441.

Leipold HE, Dannish SM and Huston K (1972). Embryonic duplication in cattle. Cornell Veterinarian 62:572-580.

Noden DM and Lahunta AD (1984). The Embryology of Domestic Animals-Developmental Mechanisms and Malformation. 1st Edn, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, London.

 Pandit RK, Pandey SK and Agrawal RG (1994). A Case of dystocia due to diplopagus monster in goat. Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 15(1):82.

Roberts SJ (1971). Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases. Scientific Book Agency, Calcutta, India p 255.

Sloss V and Dufty JH (1980). Hand Book of Bovine Obstetrics. Williams and Wilkins. Baltimore, London.

Solanki GB, Patel HA, Patel BR, Patel CN and Siddiquee GM (2011). Dystocia due to conjoined twin monster with arthogryoposis in crossbred cow: A case report. Indian Journal of Field Veterinarians 7(1):65-66. 

24

24-Title: Dicephalus atlodymus monster calf delivered by cesarean section-A case report

Authors: MR Fazili

 Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(1):97-98.

How to cite this manuscript: Fazili MR (2012). Dicephalus atlodymus monster calf delivered by cesarean section-A case report. Ruminant Science 1(1):97-98.

References

Bahr C and Distl O (2004). Case report. Diphallus in a German Holstein calf. Dtsch Tieraerztl Wochenschr 111:85-86.

Camon J, Sabate D, Verdu J, Rutllant J and Lopez-Plana C (1992). Morphology of a dicephalic cat. Anatomy and Embryology 185:45-55.

Èítek J, Øehout V and Hájková J (2009). Congenital disorders in the cattle population of the Czech Republic. Czech Journal of Animal Science 54:55-64.

Easton T.W. 1985. A possible mechanism of partial twinning in a calf. Anatomical Record 212:100-102.

El-Sheikh H, Hegab AO and Zaabel SM (2010). Dicephalic atlodymus monster associated with hydrops amnii in a buffalo cow: A case report. Veterinary Research 3:46-48.

Loynachan AT, Jackson CB and Harrison LR (2006). Complete diphallia, imperforate ani (type 2 atresia ani), and an accessory scrotum in a 5-day-old calf. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 18:408-412.

Majeed MA, Hussain SS and Hur G (1971). The structure of a double-headed buffalo calf (Dicephalus dipus dibrachius). Veterinary Record 88:393-395.

McGirr WJ, Partlow GD and Fisher KRS (1987). Two-headed, two-necked conjoined twin calf with partial duplication of thoracoabdominal structures: role of blastocyst hatching. Anatomical Record 217:196-202.

Patil AD, Markandeya NM,Sarwade VB, Moregaonkar SD (2004). Dicephalus monster in a non-descript cow. Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 4:161-2.

Roberts SJ (1982). Teratology. In: Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases, 2nd Edn, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi (India). pp 49-80.

Singh J and Patil DB (1993). The abdominal wall and peritoneum. In: Ruminant Surgery. Eds: RPS Tyagi and J Singh, Ist Edn, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, pp 175-182.

Wakuri H, Mori T and Mutoh K (1990). Arnold-Chiari malformation and associated anomalies in a dicephalic newborn calf. Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica 67:339-350.

9

9-Title: Income and employment generation pattern of tribal women in animal husbandry practices

Authors: S Sant, MK Mandal, NK Kirar and RPS Baghel

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(1):45-47.

How to cite this manuscript: Sant S, Mandal MK, Kirar NK and Baghel RPS (2012). Income and employment generation pattern of tribal women in animal husbandry practices. Ruminant Science 1(1):45-47.

Abstract

A study was conducted to assess the income and employment generation pattern of tribal women related to animal husbandry (AH) practices. Data were collected from 100 tribal respondents of 4 villages of Anuppur block of Anuppur district (MP). The study revealed that nearly all the tribal families were living below poverty line and they were employed at home. None of the respondent was engaged with employment generation activities related to animal husbandry from outside of their home. Majority of the respondents (76%) were engaged in AH activities for duration of 60 to 180 minutes per day and had medium level of employment status. Land holding and herd size of the respondents were positively and significantly correlated with the employment status of tribal women in AH practices.

 

References

Avinashlingam NA, Singh U and Ramkumar (2010). Role performance of Kota tribal households in dairying. Indian Journal of Extension Education 10(2):104-108.

Jayachandra K (1990). Dairying in drought-prone areas: A study. Yojana 34(4):27-28.

Kaur S (1987). Women in Rural Development: A Case Study. Mittal publication, Delhi.

Khandekar N (1992). Employment and income generation from animal husbandry and minor forest produce enterprises among tribal women. PhD Thesis submitted to IVRI, Izatnagar.

Meghanathan N, Selvakumar KN, Prabhu M, Pandian ASS and Kumar GS (2010). Constraint analysis of tribal livestock farming in Tamilnadu. Tamilnadu Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science 6(1):12-18.

Population Census (2001). Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Office of Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India.

Snedecor GW and Cochran WG (1994). Statistical Methods. 6th Edn, Oxford and IBH publishing Co, New Delhi.

Verma VK (1984). Participation of tribal women in decisions making process related to animal husbandry practices. MSc Thesis submitted to Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi.

10

10-Title: Pathobiological observations of pulmonary fluke infestation in goats (Capra hircus)

Authors: Hemant Dadhich, Manisha Mathur and AP Singh

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(1):49-50.

How to cite this manuscript: Dadhich Hemant, Mathur Manisha and Singh AP (2012). Pathobiological observations of pulmonary fluke infestation in goats (Capra hircus). Ruminant Science 1(1):49-50.

Abstract

In the present study, a total of 2217 goat lungs were examined and out of these, 571 specimens showing frank lesions were collected for further histopathological examination. The infestation of flukes was recorded in 1.58 per cent cases of the total affected lungs. Grossly, the lesions found on the surface of lungs were pea sized, soft and raised from the surface and were reddish purple in color. Microscopically, the sections of flukes present in the lung parenchyma showed spiny cuticle and suckers with varying size and shape. Some were immature, while, the others were mature. In most cases, the surrounding tissue showed haemorrhages and the hemosiderin laden macrophages. Cellular infiltration predominantly of lymphocytes, eosinophils and macrophages was observed in the affected areas. In some cases, the flukes migrated from the site of haemorrhages and were seen among the damaged alveoli. These flukes could not be identified.

References

Sahoo B N and Mohanty GC (1966).  Histopathological study of lesions in the lung of sheep and goats encountered in the abattoir.  I.  Study of lesions due to fasciola. Indian  Veterinary Journal 43:585-588.

Srivastava HD (1939). Occurrence of liver fluke (Fasciola gigantic) in the lungs of goats. Indian  Journal of Veterinary Science 9:223-224.

11

11-Title: Gross anatomical study of the humerus of chinkara
(Gazella gazelle bennettii)

Authors: DK Jangir, R Mathur, S Joshi, TK Gahlot and A Dangi

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(1):51-55.

How to cite this manuscript: Jangir DK, Mathur R, Joshi S, Gahlot TK and Dangi A (2012). Gross anatomical study of the humerus of chinkara (Gazella gazelle bennettii). Ruminant Science 1(1):51-55.

Abstract

The present study was conducted on four humerii of adult Chinkara. The musculo-spiral groove was shallow and deltoid tuberosity was less prominent. The head was roughly rounded and the neck was well-defined. The lateral tuberosity was large and curved over the inter-tubercular groove. The medial tuberosity was much smaller and divide was not noticeably. The coronoid fossa and olecranon fossae communicated by a small supra-trochlear foramen in some specimens, which was the most striking feature.

References

Akers RM and Denbow M (2008). Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals. Blackwell Publishing, pp 152-156.

Anonymous (2005). Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. 5th Edn, World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, Hannover. Columbia.

Bradley OC (1896). Outlines of Veterinary Anatomy.  BaillieÌre, Tindall and Cox, New York.

Brohi MA (2006). Status of Urial, Ibex and Chinkara at Durreji, Balochistan. Records Zoological Survey of Pakistan 17:11-14.

Budras KD and Robert E (2003). Bovine Anatomy: An Illustrated Text. 1st Edn, Schlutersche, pp 2-3.

Chauveau A (1905). The Comparative Anatomy of the Domesticated Animals. 2nd Edn (Translated and edited by George Fleming). New York D. Appleton and Company, pp 98-119.

Getty R (1975). Sisson and Grossman’s The Anatomy of the Domestic Animals. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

Groves CP (1969). On the Smaller Gazelles of Genus Gazelle (de Blainville, 1816).  Z Saugetierk 34(1):38-60.

Haziroglu RM and Ozer M (1990). A supratrochlear foramen in the humerus of cattle. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 19(2)106-8.

Ikic M, Salajpal K, Karolyi D, ikic D, Pavic M and Juric I (2007). Characteristics of femur and humerus in Turopolje pig – an autochthonous Croatian breed. Sveuèilište Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku, 13(1):172-175.

Kalita A and Bhattacharyya R (2008). Comparative anatomy on the appendicular skeleton of the domestic cat and local dog of mizoram. Compendium XII Annual Convention of Indian Association of Veterinary Anatomists  p 8.

Konig HE and Liebich HG (2006). Veterinary Anatomy of Domestic Animals, 3rd Edn, Schattauer, Stuttgart Germany. pp 49-104, 145-164.

Mallon DP (2008). Gazella bennettii. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. 

McFadyean (1953). Osteology and Arthrology of Domestic Animals. Eds HV Hughes and JW Dransfield, 4th Edn London Bailliere, Tindall and Cox. pp 130-172.

Miller ME, Christensen GC and Evans HE (1964). Anatomy of the Dog. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, USA. pp  64-78.

Özkan ZE (2005). Macro anatomy of axiale skeleton of hedgehog. Indian Veterinary Journal 82: 877-882.

Raghavan D (1964).  Anatomy of Ox. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. pp 97-117.

Sarma K, Kalita SN and Kumar P (2008). Anatomy of the humerus of Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamalus). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 78(1): 24-27.

Siddiqui MSI, Khan MZI, Sarma M, Islam MN and Jahan MR (2008). Macro-anatomy of the bones of the forelimb of Black Bengal Goat (Capra hircus).  Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 6(1):59-66.

Singh AP and Singh J (2004). Veterinary Radiology: Basic Principles and Radiographic Positioning. CBS Publishers and Distributor, New Delhi.

Sisson S (1911). A Text Book of Veterinary Anatomy. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London, pp 127-131.

Smuts MW and Bezuidenhout AJ (1987). Anatomy of the Dromedary. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, pp 24-34.

Snedecor GW and Cochran WG (1989). Statistical Method. 8th Edn, lowa State University Press.

Talukdar M, Kalita A and Baishya G (2002). Gross anatomical study on the humerus of mithun. Indian Veterinary Journal 79(6):585-587.

Vesey-Fitzgerald DF (1952). Wildlife in Arabia. Oryx 1:232-235

1

1-Title: Bovine surra in India: An update

Authors: Veer Singh and AK Tewari

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(1):1-7.

How to cite this manuscript: Singh Veer and Tewari AK (2012). Bovine surra in India: An update. Ruminant Science 1(1):1-7.

Abstract

Surra or trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi is the most widely distributed pathogenic mechanically transmitted vector borne haemoprotozoan disease of bovines in India. The economic losses to the farmers are in terms of acute fever, anaemia, weight loss, abortion, infertility, reduced milk yield immunosuppression, lymphadenopathy, morbidity and mortality. The outbreaks of surra occur during the rainy season and post monsoon season correlating the high density of the insect vector. Trypanosomes can be detected microscopically in fresh or fixed and stained smears prepared from blood or lymph nodes of infected animals. The other most common tests employed are wet blood film (WBF), micro-haematocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT), mouse sub-inoculation (MSI), Card agglutination (CATT), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), latex agglutination test (LAT), agglutination test, gel diffusion test, haemagglutination test, counter immunoelectrophoresis, ELISA, passive haemagglutination test (PHT), capillary agglutination test (CAT), slide enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (SELISA) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The control consisted of integrated approach i.e. proper management, vector control, chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis remains the mainstay of control of Surra in domestic animals in India. The zoonotic potential of the parasite has its public health significance.

References

Ahmad RS (1999). Detection of Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camels by enzyme immunoassays and polymerase chain reaction to rDNA target. PhD Thesis submitted to Deemed University, IVRI, Izatnagar, India.

Artama WT, Agey MW and Donelson JE (1992). DNA comparisons of Trypanosoma evansi Indonesia and Trypanosoma brucei spp. Parasitology 104:67-74.

Baghel AK, Manohar GS, Kumar D, Bhan AK (1996). Comparative evaluation of various parasitological and immunodiagnostic techniques in buffalo calves experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 10:39-45.

Bajyana-Songa E, Kageruka P and Hamers R (1987). The use of card agglutination test (Testryp (R) CATT) for serodiagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi. Annales de la Société Belge de Médecine Tropicale 67:51-57.

Basagoudanavar SH (1998). Polymerase chain reaction based detection and typing of Trypanosoma evansi. MVSc Thesis submitted to Deemed University, IVRI, Izatnagar.

Basagoudanavar SH, Rao JR, Omanwar S, Singh RK and Butchaiah G (1999). A sensitive polymerase chain reaction for detection of Trypanosoma evansi in camels. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 22:46-48.

Chaudhri SS, Gupta RP and Singh Veer (1996). Experimental tryapanosomaisis in crossbred calves: Its diagnosis and chemoprophylaxis with quinpyramine prosalt. Indian Journal of Animal Science 66:662-665.

Chhabra MB, Sharma ML, Tikaram SM and Chawla SK (1978). An outbreak of bovine tryapanomiasis and gastrointestinal parasitism in a flood affected district of Haryana. Haryana Veterinarian 17:116-120.

Das AK, Nandi NC and Mohan kumar OR (1998). Prevalence of bovine surra in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh. Indian Veterinary Journal 75:526-529.

Gardiner PR and Mammoud MM (1992). Salivarian trypanosomes causing disease in livestock outside sub-saharan Africa. In: Parasitic Protozoa. Eds JP Krier, JR Baker, Academic Press, New York, pp 272-313.

Gill BS (1964). A procedure for the indirect haemagglutination test for the study of experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 58:473-480.

Gill BS (1965). Studies on the serological diagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi. Journal of Comparative Pathology 75:635-640.

Gill BS (1971). Studies on Surra. III. Agglutination and precipitogens of the serological variants of Trypanosoma evansi. Indian Journal of Animal Science 41:618-623.

Gill BS (1991).Trypanosomes and Trypanosomiasis of Indian Livestock. ICAR, New Delhi, pp 1-92.

Holland WG, Claes F, My LN, Thanh NJ, Tam PT, Verloo D, Buscher P, Goddeeris B and Vercruysse JA (2000). Comparative evaluation of parasitological tests and a PCR for Trypanosoma evansi diagnosis in experimentally infected water buffaloes. Veterinary Parasitology 97:23-33.

Jatkar PR and Singh M (1971). Diagnosis of surra in camels by passive haemagglutination test. British Veterinary Journal 127:283-288.

Jatkar PR, Rao PV and Singh M (1977). Diagnosis of surra: Capillary agglutination test. Indian Veteterinary Journal 54:795-797.

Jeena RR, Agrawal RD, Tewari AK, Rao JR and Mishra AK (2004). Incidence of T. evansi in cattle and buffaloes of Rajasthan by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Proc. 15th National Congress of Veterinary Parasitology, October 25-27, GBPUAT, Pantnagar.

Jithendran KP, Rao JR and Mishra AK (1997). Evaluation of antigenic preparations for the diagnosis of experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in bovine calves. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 11:17-21.

Katakura K, Lubinga C, Chitambo H and Tada Y (1997). Detection of Trypanosoma congolense and T. brucei subspecies in cattle in Zambia by polymerase chain reaction from blood collected on a filter paper. Parasitology Research 83:241-245.

Kaur J, Singh Veer and Srivastava AK (2001). Plasma levels and pharmacokinetics of diminazene in combination with procaine and  antipyrine. Proceeding of 2nd Annual Conference of Indian Society of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology pp 125-126.

Killick Kendric R (1968).The diagnosis of trypanosomiasis of livestock – a review of current technique. Veterinary Bulletin 33:77-191.

Kundu K, Rao JR, Tewari AK, Baidya S and Mishra AK (2010) Existence of genetic variability among Indian isolates of Trypanosoma evansi. Indian Journal of Animal Science 80:3-6.

Kurup SP and Tewari AK (2012). Induction of protective immune response in mice by a DNA vaccine encoding Trypanosoma evansi beta tubulin gene. Veterinary Parasitology 187:9-16.

Luckins AG (1976). Detection of antibodies in trypanosome infected cattle by means of microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 70:479-480.

Luckins AG (1988). Trypanosoma evansi in Asia. Parasitology Today 4:137-142.

Nair AS, Ravindran R, Lakshmanan B, Kumar SS, Tresamol PV, Saseendranath MR, Senthilvel K, Rao JR, Tewari AK and Ghosh S (2011). Haemoprotozoa of cattle in Northern Kerala, India. Tropical Biomedicine 28:68-75.

Omanwar S, Rao JR, Basagoudanavar SH, Singh RK and Butchaiah G (1998). Direct and sensitive detection of Trypanosoma evansi by polymerase chain reaction. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 47:351-359.

Omanwar S, Rao JR, Basagoudanavar SH, Singh RK and Butchaiah G (1999). A simple and highly sensitive detection of Trypanosoma evansi by DNA amplification from crude blood samples collected on filter papers. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 13:27-29.

Pathak KML and Singh N (2005). Animal Trypanosomosis. Intas Polivet 6:194-199.

Powar RM, Shegokar VR, Joshi PP, Dani VS, Tankhiwale NS, Truc P, Janin J and Bhargava A (2006). A rare case of human trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 24:72-74.

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