42-Title: Clinical management of urinary surgical conditions in ruminants

42-Title: Clinical management of urinary surgical conditions in ruminants

Authors: S Purohit, Atul Yadav, Ankit Negi, PVV Reddy, Arpit Kaushal, Kaushal, Gulshan Kumar and RP Pandey

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(2):419-428.

How to cite this manuscript: Purohit S, Yadav Atul, Negi Ankit, Reddy PVV, Kaushal Arpit, Kaushal, Kumar Gulshan and Pandey RP (2020). Clinical management of urinary surgical conditions in ruminants. Ruminant Science 9(2):419-428.


The present study was conducted on 173 animals suffering from different types of affections of the urinary system of which 23.12% were cows, 38.73% buffaloes, 24.28% goats and 13.87% sheep, which on anamnesis and clinical examination revealed obstructive urolithiasis (84.48%), urachus pervious (9.25%) and urethral diverticulum (5.78%). In selected cases, ultrasonographic and radiographic examinations were conducted to assess the organ’s condition and adhesions. The animals suffering from obstructive urolithiasis (n=147) were treated by amputation of the urethral process (6.8%), urethrotomy & urethrostomy (7.45%) and tube cystotomy (85.72%). The animals suffering with urachus pervious (n=16) were managed by conservative and surgical ligation of the urachus, while with urethral diverticulum were treated by urethral diverticulectomy (5.78%). Amputation of the urethral process should be conducted prior to shifting to other surgical processes in bucks and rams. The conservative treatment of urachus pervious should be tried before the surgical ligation in all animals. In ruminants, tube cystotomy was found to be a more appropriate and cost-effective treatment for the rupture of the urinary bladder and urethra. Ammonium chloride @ 400 mg/kg body weight helped to dislodge the calculi in ruminants. It is recommended to feed ammonium chloride and sodium chloride to prevent calculi formation by increasing the acidity and volume of the urine, respectively.


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41-Title: Foot affections in sheep: Clinical observations

41-Title: Foot affections in sheep: Clinical observations

Authors: Beenish Qureshi, Mujeeb ur Rehman Fazili, Nida handoo, Raja Aijaz Ahmad,

Shahid Hussain Dar and Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(2):413-418.

How to cite this manuscript: Qureshi Beenish, Fazili MR, Handoo Nida, Ahmad RA, Dar SH and Gugjoo MB (2020). Foot affections in sheep: Clinical observations. Ruminant Science 9(2):413-418.


The clinical signs were recorded in 24 sheep presented with single foot lameness for an average duration of eight days. The mean age and body weight (Mean±SE) were 26.92±5.31 months and 35.21±4.12kg, respectively. Female (n=18) sheep outnumbered the males (n=6). Forelimbs (75.00%) and right feet (62.50%) were involved in the majority of the sheep. The lateral claws were affected more frequently. The interdigital skin lesions were noticed in 10/24 and local alopecia in nine animals. Seven sheep had lesions in the sole, four in the coronary area and three in the heel. Majority (79.17%) of the sheep had lesions showing discharges. Twelve animals had overgrown hooves and 10 also showed loose and under-run solar horn. The mean increase in the pastern circumference was 0.49 inches (range 0.2 to 1.0inches). Gross contamination was detected in 58.33% sheep. Mean±SE values of rectal temperature, heart rate and respiration rates were 101.91±0.50 oF, 96.29±5.30 beats per minute and 33.33±4.57 breaths per minute, respectively. The rumen motility and Capillary Refill Time (CRT) values were 1.54±0.17 per two minutes and 1.25±0.28 seconds respectively. The visible mucus membranes in nine sheep were pale and three showed congestion. The lameness and the pain scores were 2.33±0.26 and 2.08±0.29 respectively. From this study, it is concluded that adult female sheep most frequently suffer from acute foot affections. These animals exhibit a range of typical local symptoms, moderate pain and lameness. The farmer perception of animal health and welfare needs immediate improvement.


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34-Title: Cardiac troponin I: A prognostic marker of myocardial damage in dairy cow infected with anaplasmosis and fascioliasis

34-Title: Cardiac troponin I: A prognostic marker of myocardial damage in dairy cow infected with anaplasmosis and fascioliasis

Authors: K Jayalakshmi, M Venkatesan, M Veeraselvam, M Saravanan, S Yogeshpriya, P Selvaraj, N Premalatha and A Latchumikanthan

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(2):389-390.

How to cite this manuscript: Jayalakshmi K, Venkatesan M, Veeraselvam M, Saravanan M, Yogeshpriya S, Selvaraj P, Premalatha N and Latchumikanthan A (2020). Cardiac troponin I: A prognostic marker of myocardial damage in dairy cow infected with anaplasmosis and fascioliasis. Ruminant Science 9(2):389-390.


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33-Title: Ischiopagus monster in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): A cause of dystocia

33-Title: Ischiopagus monster in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): A cause of dystocia

Authors: AK Limba, Sarita and R Nehra

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(2):387-388.

How to cite this manuscript: Limba AK, Sarita and Nehra R (2020). Ischiopagus monster in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): A cause of dystocia. Ruminant Science 9(2):387-388.


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32-Title: Efficacy of epididymal spermatozoa for in vitro fertilization in caprine species

32-Title: Efficacy of epididymal spermatozoa for in vitro fertilization in caprine species

Authors: A Suresh, MK Shukla, Dharmendra Kumar, OP Shrivastava and Neeraj Verma

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(2):383-386.

How to cite this manuscript: Suresh A, Shukla MK, Kumar Dharmendra, Shrivastava OP and Verma Neeraj (2020). Efficacy of epididymal spermatozoa for in vitro fertilization in caprine species. Ruminant Science 9(2):383-386.


The fertilization capacity of caprine epididymal spermatozoa in an in vitro embryo production system was evaluated in this study. Oocytes and spermatozoa were recovered from ovaries and epididymis, respectively, procured from a local small animal abattoir. The abattoir derived cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were subjected to in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization with epididymal spermatozoa harvested from the epididymis of slaughtered animals collected within 2-3 hours of slaughter and stored at 4oC up to 24 hours. Cytoplasmic maturation, cleavage and blastocyst rates of 89.78±0.50, 63.88±2.33 and 25.38±2.08%, respectively were recorded for in vitro embryo production with abattoir derived male and female gametes. In conclusion, the use of abattoir derived spermatozoa for in vitro embryo production can be useful for the conservation of elite germplasm from dead animals.


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31-Title: Seasonal changes in seminal plasma biochemical parameters of NARI Suwarna rams

31-Title: Seasonal changes in seminal plasma biochemical parameters of NARI Suwarna rams

Authors: Venkanagouda Doddagoudar, MK Tandle, RG Bijurkar, NA Patil, Ashok Pawar, Shrikant Kulkarni and Vinay Tikare

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(2):379-382.

How to cite this manuscript: Doddagoudar Venkanagouda, Tandle MK, Bijurkar RG, Patil NA, Pawar Ashok, Kulkarni Shrikant and Tikare Vinay (2020). Seasonal changes in seminal plasma biochemical parameters of NARI Suwarna rams. Ruminant Science 9(2):379-382.


The seminal plasma composition of NARI Suwarna rams, a strain of sheep with improved reproductive capability was evaluated over six months, divided equally into breeding (winter) and non-breeding (summer) seasons. The lipid peroxidation during the non-breeding season was significantly higher, whereas all other estimated parameters viz. total protein, cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP did not show any significant variation (p>0.05) between or within breeding (winter) and non-breeding (summer) seasons.


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Mustapha AR, Beigh YA, Abhishek K, Rahul K, Omer D, Kumar A, Prasad JK, Bhure S, Srivastava N  and Ghosh SK (2017). Effects of partial deoxygenation of extender on plasma membrane integrity and enzyme activity in frozen-thawed crossbred bull semen. Ruminant Science 6(2):327-331.

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30-Title: Effect of phase of oestrus cycle on recovery and in vitro maturation of abbatoir derived buffalo oocytes

30-Title: Effect of phase of oestrus cycle on recovery and in vitro maturation of abbatoir derived buffalo oocytes

Authors: MK Shukla, D Kumar, Ashitha Suresh, Neeraj Verma, OP Shrivastava and BC Sarkhel

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(2):373-377.

How to cite this manuscript: Shukla MK, Kumar D, Suresh Ashitha, Verma Neeraj, Shrivastava OP and Sarkhel BC (2020). Effect of phase of oestrus cycle on recovery and in vitro maturation of abbatoir derived buffalo oocytes. Ruminant Science 9(2):373-377.


This study was conducted on oocytes retrieved from 1339 follicles (406 ovaries) in follicular phase, 1191 follicles (371 ovaries) in the early luteal phase and 1121 follicles (233 ovaries) in luteal phase to study the effect of the phase of oestrous cycle on oocyte retrieval, quality and in vitro maturation of the oocytes. Significantly (p<0.01) higher number of follicles per ovary and COCs retrieved per ovary were recorded in the ovaries in luteal phase (4.87±0.32 and 3.29±0.23) as compared to those in follicular phase (3.34±0.12 and 2.28±0.09) or early luteal phase (3.23±0.13 and 2.26±0.11). The in vitro maturation (%) was also significantly (p<0.01) higher in COCs retrieved from ovaries during the luteal phase (86.54±0.53) as compared to follicular (80.86±0.23) or early luteal phase (83.76±0.48) of the oestrus cycle. The difference between nuclear maturation in COCs retrieved during early luteal and follicular phase was also significant (p<0.05). Thus the present study indicates that COCs retrieved during the luteal phase of the cycle have better developmental competence as compared to those removed during other stages of the oestrous cycle.


Agrawal Jitendra Kumar, Saxena Atul, Kharche SD, Pathak Juhi, Sikarwar AKS, Patel Akhil, Goel AK and Jindal SK (2016). A study on parthenogenetic activation and embryo production from in vitro matured caprine oocytes. Ruminant Science 5(1):21-24.

Agrawal JK, Kharche SD, Saxena A, Yadav S and Panday RP (2017). A study on embryo production through in vitro fertization of caprine oocytes. Ruminant Science 6(2):333-336.

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29-Title:Evaluation of on-farm milk culture system for identification of mastitis pathogens

29-Title: Evaluation of on-farm milk culture system for identification of mastitis pathogens

Authors: S Saleem Shabaz, D Rani Prameela, D Sreenivasulu and K Sujatha

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(2):363-372.

How to cite this manuscript: Shabaz SS, Prameela DR, Sreenivasulu D and Sujatha K (2020). Evaluation of on-farm milk culture system for identification of mastitis pathogens. Ruminant Science 9(2):363-372.


In the present study, a total of 438 milk samples (clinical and subclinical) were subjected to cultural examination by on-farm culture system as well as with the conventional culture method. On farm, culture system revealed that 240 isolates were of Gram positive organisms with an occurrence of 54.79% and only 1.59% (7) was of Gram negative organisms. The conventional cultural method revealed that 86.98% (381) of organisms belonged to Gram positive Staphylococcal species and 2.05% (9) to Gram negative E. coli similarly with in Staphylococcal species the occurrence of coagulase positive and coagulase negative Staphylococcus were of 71.12% and 28.27%, respectively. In vitro antibiotics sensitivity test result of Gram positive Staphylococcal isolates revealed high sensitivity to Amoxycillin (60.37%) followed by ampicillin (56.65%), enrofloxacin (53.77%), ciprofloxacin (46.22%) and penicillin and (43.39%) and resistance to amikacin (92.45%) followed by kanamycin (90.56%), streptomycin (87.73%), tetracycline (79.24%) and gentamicin (73.5%). Similarly, the isolates of Gram negative E. coli isolates revealed sensitivity to enrofloxacin (66.6%) followed by ciprofloxacin (55.55%), amoxicillin (55.55%), gentamicin (44.44%), tetracycline (33.33%) and resistance to kanamycin (77.77%) followed by amikacin (66.66%), streptomycin (66.66%) and ampicillin (66.66%).


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28-Title: Prevalence of mineral deficiencies during advanced pregnancy in crossbred cows from Punjab

28-Title: Prevalence of mineral deficiencies during advanced pregnancy in crossbred cows from Punjab

Authors: Gagandeep Singh, SNS Randhawa, N Chand, CS Randhawa, S Chabbra and Randhir Singh

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(2):357-362.

How to cite this manuscript: Singh Gagandeep, Randhawa SNS, Chand N, Randhawa CS, Chabbra S and Singh Randhir (2020). Prevalence of mineral deficiencies during advanced pregnancy in crossbred cows from Punjab. Ruminant Science 9(2):357-362.


A total of 166 cross bred cows during their advanced gestation period were evaluated to study the deficiency of various macro and micro minerals. Blood sample was collected from all of them for evaluating the haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), inorganic phosphorus, copper (Cu), iron (Fe ) and zinc (Zn). Out of the total cows, a total of 55 (33.13 %) cows were having Ca levels, less than 8.15 mg/dl, similarly 29 (17.46 %) cows were having Cu levels <0.5 ppm, whereas Fe levels were found normal in all the cows with only 21 (12.65 %) of cows, out of 166 were having Fe levels <1 ppm.  Haematological results revealed that out of the total cows 30 (18.07 %) were having Hb levels < 8.0 g/dl. Parity wise most of the deficiencies were prevalent in cows in the age group of 2nd -5th parity cows.


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27-Title: Impact of LEPR/BseGI polymorphism on production and reproduction traits of Haryana cattle

27-Title: Impact of LEPR/BseGI polymorphism on production and reproduction traits of Haryana cattle

Authors: Rambachan, Rajesh Nigam, Vijay Pandey, Pawanjit Singh, SP Singh and Deepak Sharma

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(2):351-356.

How to cite this manuscript: Rambachan, Nigam Rajesh, Pandey Vijay, Singh Pawanjit, Singh SP and Sharma Deepak (2020). Impact of LEPR/BseGI polymorphism on production and reproduction traits of Haryana cattle. Ruminant Science 9(2):351-356.


This study was aimed to elucidate the genetic polymorphism of the LEPR gene and its correlation with reproduction and production traits in Haryana cattle. For that genomic DNA was harvested from WBCs of 62 Haryana cows. The LEPR/BseGI assay showed two alleles C and T with 0.52 and 0.48 allelic frequency and three genotypes CT, CC, and TT with 87.09, 8.06 and 4.83 per cent genotypic frequency, respectively in the studied Haryana population. The LEPR/BseGI genotypes showed significant association with GP in the second lactation and with LP, TMY, and MY300 in the first lactation in Haryana cattle. In conclusion, LEPR/BseGI assay revealed genetic polymorphism in Indian Haryana cattle showing significant association with reproduction (GP) and milk production (LP, TMY and MY300) traits. This signifies that this SNP in the LEPR gene may be one among many markers for the selection of cattle with better milk yield. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to do in another breed and population of Indian cattle for authenticating the association of LEPR/BseGI assay with other production and reproduction traits.


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