8-Title: Evaluation of health status by serum metabolic profiling in Rathi cows with some disorders

Authors: N Kataria and AK Kataria

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):131-135.

How to cite this manuscript: Kataria N  and Kataria AK (2012). Evaluation of health status by serum metabolic profiling in Rathi cows with some disorders. Ruminant Science 1(2):131-135.


Health status was evaluated in Rathi cows with some disorders viz. ketosis, diarrhoea, traumatic pericarditis and acidosis. The serum metabolic profiling included determination of various serum enzymes viz. sorbitol dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, 5’nucleotidase, glucose-6-phosphatase, arginase, and aldolase in healthy animals, the mean values (UL-1) of which were 12.00±0.12, 42.00±1.21, 4.12±0.01, 23.00±0.76, 9.00±0.41, 17.00±1.00, 4.10±0.09, 11.00±0.06 and 10.01±0.06, respectively. When a comparison was made between values from healthy and animals with disorders it was deduced that there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the levels of each of the enzymes in affected cows. The magnitude of increase in the levels of all the enzymes was maximum in the cows affected with ketosis in comparison to other disorders. Glucose-6-phosphatase showed a maximum of 3.43 times increase in cows having ketosis. It was concluded that modulation of metabolic reactions was there to meet the metabolic crisis in affected animals and a regular metabolic profiling can help in monitoring the health status of the cows affected with various disorders to check worsening of the conditions.


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7-Title: Effect of species variation on level of different trace elements in the serum of anoestrus cattle

Authors: Vishal Mudgal, Vishnu Kumar Gupta, Shalini Srivastava and Ajaz Ahmed Ganai

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):127-130.

How to cite this manuscript: Mudgal Vishal, Gupta Vishnu Kumar, Srivastava Shalini and Ganai Ajaz Ahmed (2012). Effect of species variation on level of different trace elements in the serum of anoestrus cattle. Ruminant Science 1(2):127-130.


The present study was conducted to determine the serum micro-mineral status (iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer in two different breeds of anoestrus cattle i.e. Sahiwal and Crossbred. Mean serum iron, copper, zinc, manganese and cobalt concentration of 20 Sahiwal cow and heifers were 2.47±1.35, 0.52±0.16, 3.69±2.57, 0.18±0.09 and 0.56±0.22 ppm, respectively whereas the respective concentration of these trace elements was 3.16±1.05, 0.45±0.13, 2.76±1.51, 0.21±0.07 and 0.51±0.22 in cross bred animals. All the trace elements were in normal range prescribed for the species except copper which was marginally on lower side to exhibit the deficiency symptoms. There were minor breed differences observed between Sahiwal and Crossbred in the present study. It was concluded that deficiency of copper, could be responsible for anoestrus condition in these animals. Thus strategic dietary supplementation of copper with better bioavailability could be a suitable approach for prevention of anoestrus in cattle.


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6-Title: Effect of progesterone impregnated intravaginal sponges, pmsg and estradiol valerate on oestrus induction, fertility and progesterone profile in Sahiwal heifers

Authors: Brijesh Kumar Singh, Atul Saxena, Brijesh Kumar, KS Gunaranjan and S Mishra

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):125-126.

How to cite this manuscript: Singh Brijesh Kumar, Saxena Atul, Kumar Brijesh, Gunaranjan KS and Mishra S (2012). Effect of progesterone impregnated intravaginal sponges, pmsg and estradiol valerate on oestrus induction, fertility and progesterone profile in Sahiwal heifers. Ruminant Science 1(2):125-126.


Sixteen Sahiwal heifers were implanted with a progesterone impregnated sponge in the anterior vagina for seven days. On day 7 sponges were removed and 500 I.U. PMSG was injected intramuscularly, while on day 8, 1mg of estradiol valerate was injected intramuscularly. Jugular veinous blood samples were collected on day 0, 7, and 8 of implant for assay of plasma progesterone. The percentage of animals that showed overt signs of estrus following withdrawal of sponges were 62.5% (10/16) and 25% (4/16) were found pregnant. Heifers which became pregnant (n=4) had a mean concentration of hormone progesterone on the day of start of treatment (day 0) as 5.88±1.91 ng/ml. The respective concentration on day 7 and day 9 were found as 1.78±0.24 and 1.52±0.71 ng/ml. Heifers which were found to be non-pregnant (n=12) had a mean concentration of hormone progesterone as 3.88±0.75 ng/ml on the day of start of treatment (day 0). The respective concentrations on day 7 and day 9 were found as 1.33±0.20, and 0.85±0.18 ng/ml, respectively.


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5-Title: Caffeine as semen additive to improve Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen cryopreservation

Authors: MK Shukla, AK Misra and HP Gupta

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):121-124.

How to cite this manuscript: Shukla MK, Misra AK and Gupta HP (2012). Caffeine as semen additive to improve Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen cryopreservation. Ruminant Science 1(2):121-124.


Caffeine was supplemented at a concentration of 1.0, 3.0 or 5.0 mM to Egg yolk tris glycerol extender (EYTG) at the time of dilution of Murrah buffalo bull semen which was subsequently frozen. The post thaw progressive motility and live sperm per cent improved significantly (P<0.05) with addition of 1.0 (70.0 and  and m  and caffeine to extender before semen dilution and cryopreservation as compared to control (61.94 1.15 and 79.05 1.02%), when evaluated at 0 h post freeze. All the three concentrations of caffeine significantly improved the Hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) % and protected the sperm from becoming abnormal as observed at 0 and 48 h after freezing. Thus incorporation of caffeine (1.0 or 3.0 mM) in EYTG extender, prior to freezing, may be useful in improving the quality of cryopreserved bubaline semen.


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4-Title: Hydrometra in goats (Capra hircus): Clinical analysis of 26 cases

Authors: G N Purohit and J S Mehta

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):117-119.

How to cite this manuscript: Purohit GN and Mehta JS (2012). Hydrometra in goats (Capra hircus): Clinical analysis of 26 cases. Ruminant Science 1(2):117-119.


Hydrometra was diagnosed in 26 goats aged 3 to 6 years at our referral centre from 2001 to 2011. Seven goats presented for pregnancy evaluation were diagnosed to have hydrometra by ultrasonographic presence of anechoic fluid without fetus and cotyledons at least 40 days after mating. These goats were treated with an IM injection of 125 µg of a prostaglandin (Prostodin, Astra Zeneca Pharma) and the uterine fluid was evacuated within 24-48 h of treatment. Clinical diagnosis of hydrometra in another 19 goats presented was based on discharge of copious watery vaginal fluid without presence/delivery of fetus and its annexes. It was concluded that hydrometra in goats can be diagnosed easily by the sonographic appearance of fluid after 40 days of mating or discharge of plenty of watery fluid without delivery/presence of fetus and its annexes.


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3-Title: Ultrasonographic measurement of crown rump length to predict gestational age in Barbari goats

Authors: Bharat Sharma, Swadesh Sharma, OP Shrivastava, VK  Bhardwaj, Sourabh Gupta and RPS Baghel

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):113-116.

How to cite this manuscript: Sharma Bharat, Sharma Swadesh, Shrivastava OP, Bhardwaj VK, Gupta Sourabh and Baghel RPS (2012).Ultrasonographic measurement of crown rump length to predict gestational age in Barbari goats. Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):113-116.


Ultrasound imaging was commenced after 20 days of service up to kidding in 17 clinically normal does of different breeds with weight ranging from 15 to 60 kg. Animals were divided into 2 groups i.e. Group I comprised of does imaged 20-60 days from last service.  In group II comprised of does imaged 60-90 days from last service. In Group I the average measurement (cm) of gestational age and CRL was 48.25±1.108 and 4.8±0.409, respectively. In group II the average measurement of gestational age and CRL (cm) during gestation was 65.69±1.27 and 12.61±0.622 respectively. It was concluded that CRL is a good indicator to predict fetal age from last service.


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2-Title: Development of embryonic stem cell clone from in vitro derived buffalo embryos in feeder and feeder free culture conditions

Authors: Gopal Puri and Sadhan Bag

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):109-112.

How to cite this manuscript: Puri Gopal and Bag Sadhan (2012).Development of embryonic stem cell clone from in vitro derived buffalo embryos in feeder and feeder free culture conditions. Ruminant Science 1(2):109-112.


The present experiment was carried out to study the effects of feeder or feeder free culture system on developmental potency of in vitro derived buffalo embryos to embryonic stem cell clones. In vitro produced buffalo embryos were made zona free and cultured on two types of feeder layer (buffalo and murine fetal fibroblast monolayer) and two types of feeder free coated plates (matrigel and fibronectin extra cellular matrix) culture system. The percentage of primary stem cell clone development was significantly higher (P<0.01) on buffalo and murine fibroblast monolayers as compared to the feeder free coated plates. The fibroblast monolayer was significantly better than feeder free coated plates in development of embryonic stem cell clones. It can be concluded that feeder cell layer culture system was found to be significantly better than feeder free culture system and matrigel coating plates were found to be better than fibronectin coating plate in development of embryonic stem (ES) cell clones.


Dahéron L, Sarah L, Opitz SL, Zaehres H, William M, Lensch , WM, Andrews , PW, Itskovitz-Eldor J and Daley GQ (2004). LIF/STAT3 signaling fails to maintain self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells 22:770-778.

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1-Title: Ruminant mammary stem cells: Methods of identification and status

Authors: Ratan K Choudhary and Shanti Choudhary

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):101-108.

How to cite this manuscript: Choudhary RK and Choudhary Shanti (2012). Ruminant mammary stem cells: Methods of identification and status. Ruminant Science 1(2):101-108.


Mammary stem cells (MaSC) are the epithelial stem cell, which generates functional mammary gland upon transplantation into epithelium-cleared mammary fat pad. Two distinct functions of MaSC are; 1) maintenance of stem cell population (self-renewal) and, 2) production of differentiated cells of various cell lineages (differentiation). Knowledge of MaSC will provide insight into extensive expansion capacity and differentiation characteristics of mammary gland. Additionally, identification of cell hierarchy will broaden understanding of mammary gland biology. In this review, we have discussed different methods of identification of human and mouse MaSC. These methods were employed to isolate bovine and goat MaSC. We have also discussed the status of ruminant (bovine, goat, sheep and buffalo) MaSC. Knowledge of bovine, goat and sheep MaSC is recent and limited whereas information on buffalo MaSC is still lacking.


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