8

8-Title: Evaluation of health status by serum metabolic profiling in Rathi cows with some disorders

Authors: N Kataria and AK Kataria

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):131-135.

How to cite this manuscript: Kataria N  and Kataria AK (2012). Evaluation of health status by serum metabolic profiling in Rathi cows with some disorders. Ruminant Science 1(2):131-135.

Abstract

Health status was evaluated in Rathi cows with some disorders viz. ketosis, diarrhoea, traumatic pericarditis and acidosis. The serum metabolic profiling included determination of various serum enzymes viz. sorbitol dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, 5’nucleotidase, glucose-6-phosphatase, arginase, and aldolase in healthy animals, the mean values (UL-1) of which were 12.00±0.12, 42.00±1.21, 4.12±0.01, 23.00±0.76, 9.00±0.41, 17.00±1.00, 4.10±0.09, 11.00±0.06 and 10.01±0.06, respectively. When a comparison was made between values from healthy and animals with disorders it was deduced that there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the levels of each of the enzymes in affected cows. The magnitude of increase in the levels of all the enzymes was maximum in the cows affected with ketosis in comparison to other disorders. Glucose-6-phosphatase showed a maximum of 3.43 times increase in cows having ketosis. It was concluded that modulation of metabolic reactions was there to meet the metabolic crisis in affected animals and a regular metabolic profiling can help in monitoring the health status of the cows affected with various disorders to check worsening of the conditions.

References

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Kour G and Kataria N (2011). Ambient temperature associated variations in serum arginase and aldolase in Marwari goat. Veterinary Practitioner 12(1):124-127.

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7

7-Title: Effect of species variation on level of different trace elements in the serum of anoestrus cattle

Authors: Vishal Mudgal, Vishnu Kumar Gupta, Shalini Srivastava and Ajaz Ahmed Ganai

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):127-130.

How to cite this manuscript: Mudgal Vishal, Gupta Vishnu Kumar, Srivastava Shalini and Ganai Ajaz Ahmed (2012). Effect of species variation on level of different trace elements in the serum of anoestrus cattle. Ruminant Science 1(2):127-130.

Abstract

The present study was conducted to determine the serum micro-mineral status (iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer in two different breeds of anoestrus cattle i.e. Sahiwal and Crossbred. Mean serum iron, copper, zinc, manganese and cobalt concentration of 20 Sahiwal cow and heifers were 2.47±1.35, 0.52±0.16, 3.69±2.57, 0.18±0.09 and 0.56±0.22 ppm, respectively whereas the respective concentration of these trace elements was 3.16±1.05, 0.45±0.13, 2.76±1.51, 0.21±0.07 and 0.51±0.22 in cross bred animals. All the trace elements were in normal range prescribed for the species except copper which was marginally on lower side to exhibit the deficiency symptoms. There were minor breed differences observed between Sahiwal and Crossbred in the present study. It was concluded that deficiency of copper, could be responsible for anoestrus condition in these animals. Thus strategic dietary supplementation of copper with better bioavailability could be a suitable approach for prevention of anoestrus in cattle.

References

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Koley S and Biswas P (2004). Effect of mineral supplementation on the performance of anestrous cows. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 21:268-270.

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Muehlenbein EL, Brink DR, Deutscher GH, Carlson MP and Johnson AB (2001). Effects of inorganic and organic copper supplemented to first-calf cows on cow reproduction and calf health and performance. Journal of Animal Sciences 79:1650-1659.

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Parikh SS, Suthar BN, Nakhashi HC, Sharma VK and Parmar VR (2012). Trace elements profiles of postpartum Mehsana buffalos with hormonal treatment. Ruminant Science 1(1):67-71.

Phillippo M, Humphries WR and Atkinson T (1987). The effect of dietary molybdenum and iron on copper status, puberty, fertility, and estrous cycles in cattle. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 109:321-336.

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Rajkumar R, Srivastava SK, Yadav MC,  Varshney VP, Varshney JP  and Kumar H (2006). Effect of homeopathic complex on oestrus induction and hormonal profile in anoestrus cows. Homeopathy 95:131-135.

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Sharma VK, Vadodari VP, Kavani FSS and Siddique GM (1986). Studies on circulating levels of trace minerals in normal cyclic and primary infertile Kankheraj heifers. Indian Veterinary Journal 65:332-335

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6

6-Title: Effect of progesterone impregnated intravaginal sponges, pmsg and estradiol valerate on oestrus induction, fertility and progesterone profile in Sahiwal heifers

Authors: Brijesh Kumar Singh, Atul Saxena, Brijesh Kumar, KS Gunaranjan and S Mishra

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):125-126.

How to cite this manuscript: Singh Brijesh Kumar, Saxena Atul, Kumar Brijesh, Gunaranjan KS and Mishra S (2012). Effect of progesterone impregnated intravaginal sponges, pmsg and estradiol valerate on oestrus induction, fertility and progesterone profile in Sahiwal heifers. Ruminant Science 1(2):125-126.

Abstract

Sixteen Sahiwal heifers were implanted with a progesterone impregnated sponge in the anterior vagina for seven days. On day 7 sponges were removed and 500 I.U. PMSG was injected intramuscularly, while on day 8, 1mg of estradiol valerate was injected intramuscularly. Jugular veinous blood samples were collected on day 0, 7, and 8 of implant for assay of plasma progesterone. The percentage of animals that showed overt signs of estrus following withdrawal of sponges were 62.5% (10/16) and 25% (4/16) were found pregnant. Heifers which became pregnant (n=4) had a mean concentration of hormone progesterone on the day of start of treatment (day 0) as 5.88±1.91 ng/ml. The respective concentration on day 7 and day 9 were found as 1.78±0.24 and 1.52±0.71 ng/ml. Heifers which were found to be non-pregnant (n=12) had a mean concentration of hormone progesterone as 3.88±0.75 ng/ml on the day of start of treatment (day 0). The respective concentrations on day 7 and day 9 were found as 1.33±0.20, and 0.85±0.18 ng/ml, respectively.

References

Berardinelli JG and Addair R (1989). Effect of prostaglandin F 2alpha dosage and stage of estrous cycle on the estrous response and corpus luteum function in beef heifers. Theriogenology 32(2):301-14.

Britt JS and Gaska J (1998). Comparison of two in a large, confinement housed dairy herd. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 212:210-212.

Das GK and Khan FA (2010). Summer anoestrus in buffalo-A review. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 45: e483-e494.

Deshmukh YD, Markandeya NM, Chaudhari RJ and Deshmukh VV (2010).  Progesterone profile in two different protocols of estrus synchronization in post partum red Kandhari cows. Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 31:37-39.

Ghuman SPS, Dadarwal D, Honparkhe M, Singh J and Dhaliwal GS (2009). Production of polyclonal antiserum against progesterone for application in radioimmunoassay. Indian Veterinary Journal 86:909-911.

Macmillan KL and Peterson AJ (1993). A new intravaginal progesterone releasing device for cattle (CIDR-B) for estrous synchronization, increasing pregnancy rates and the treatment of post-partum anoestrus. Animal Reproduction Science 33:1-25.

Murugavel K, Antonie D and Raju MS (2010). Fertility following estrus synchronization in cross bred cows. Indian Veterinary Journal 87:513-514.

Roche J F (1976). Calving rate of cows following insemination after a 12-day treatment with silastic coils impregnated with proptenme. Journal of Animal Science 43:164.

5

5-Title: Caffeine as semen additive to improve Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen cryopreservation

Authors: MK Shukla, AK Misra and HP Gupta

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):121-124.

How to cite this manuscript: Shukla MK, Misra AK and Gupta HP (2012). Caffeine as semen additive to improve Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen cryopreservation. Ruminant Science 1(2):121-124.

Abstract

Caffeine was supplemented at a concentration of 1.0, 3.0 or 5.0 mM to Egg yolk tris glycerol extender (EYTG) at the time of dilution of Murrah buffalo bull semen which was subsequently frozen. The post thaw progressive motility and live sperm per cent improved significantly (P<0.05) with addition of 1.0 (70.0 and  and m  and caffeine to extender before semen dilution and cryopreservation as compared to control (61.94 1.15 and 79.05 1.02%), when evaluated at 0 h post freeze. All the three concentrations of caffeine significantly improved the Hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) % and protected the sperm from becoming abnormal as observed at 0 and 48 h after freezing. Thus incorporation of caffeine (1.0 or 3.0 mM) in EYTG extender, prior to freezing, may be useful in improving the quality of cryopreserved bubaline semen.

References

Aitken RJ, Best F, Richardson DW, Schats R and Simm G (1983). Influence of Caffeine on movement characteristics, fertilizing capacity and ability to penetrate cervical mucus of human spermatozoa. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 67:19-27.

Bhosrekar MR, Rane RS and Mazokari RC (2001). Fertility of Murrah buffalo bulls in Bhilawadi area of Sangli district. Proceedings, XVIIth Annual Convention and National Seminar on Fertility Management of Farm Animals under Adverse Agro-Climatic Conditions, Jodhpur, India, p 18.

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Chohan KR, Iqbal J, Ashgar AA and Chaudhry MA (1992). Fertility of liquid and frozen semen in nili Ravi buffaloes. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 12:4-5.

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Fattouh  El-SM and Abdou MSS (1991). Effect of caffeine on the post-thaw motility of buffalo spermatozoa. Theriogenology 36:149-154.

Fattouh El-SM, Seida AA, Nasr MT and Abou-Ahmed MM (1985). Effect of Caffeine on the motility of ejaculated and epididymal buffalo spermatozoa. Veterinary Medical Journal of Egypt 33:261-271.

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Gehlaut BS and Srivastava RK (1987). Effect of caffeine citrate on post thaw motility of buffalo bull spermatozoa. Theriogenology 28(6):767-772.

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Makler A, Makler E, Itzkovitz J and Brandes JM (1980). Factors affecting sperm motility. IV. Incubation of human semen with caffeine, kallikrein and other metabolically active compounds. Fertility and Sterility 33:624-630.

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Rasul Z, Ahmad N and Anzar M (2001). Changes in motion characteristics, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome morphology during cryopreservation of buffalo spermatozoa. Journal of Andrology 22(2):278-283.

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Singh NP and Raina VS (2000). Effect of caffeine, cAMP and cattle seminal plasma on freezability buffalo bull semen. Asian Australian Journal of Animal Science 13(7):901-905.

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4

4-Title: Hydrometra in goats (Capra hircus): Clinical analysis of 26 cases

Authors: G N Purohit and J S Mehta

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):117-119.

How to cite this manuscript: Purohit GN and Mehta JS (2012). Hydrometra in goats (Capra hircus): Clinical analysis of 26 cases. Ruminant Science 1(2):117-119.

Abstract

Hydrometra was diagnosed in 26 goats aged 3 to 6 years at our referral centre from 2001 to 2011. Seven goats presented for pregnancy evaluation were diagnosed to have hydrometra by ultrasonographic presence of anechoic fluid without fetus and cotyledons at least 40 days after mating. These goats were treated with an IM injection of 125 µg of a prostaglandin (Prostodin, Astra Zeneca Pharma) and the uterine fluid was evacuated within 24-48 h of treatment. Clinical diagnosis of hydrometra in another 19 goats presented was based on discharge of copious watery vaginal fluid without presence/delivery of fetus and its annexes. It was concluded that hydrometra in goats can be diagnosed easily by the sonographic appearance of fluid after 40 days of mating or discharge of plenty of watery fluid without delivery/presence of fetus and its annexes.

References

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Haibel GK (1990). Use of ultrasonography in reproductive management of sheep and goat herds. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 6:597-613.

Harsh MM, Sharma SS and Purohit GN (2008). Sonographic findings during pregnancy in ewes. Veterinary Practitioner  9:17-18.

Hesselink JW (1993). Hydrometra in dairy goats: reproductive performance after treatment with prostaglandins. Veterinary Record 133:186-187.

Kornalijnslijper JE, Kemp B, Bevers MM, Van Oord HA and Taverne MAM (1997). Plasma prolactin, growth hormone and progesterone concentrations in pseudopregnant, hysterectomized and pregnant goats. Animal Reproduction Science 49:169-178.

Lopes Junior ES, Cruz JF, Teixeira DI, Lima Verde JB, Paula NR, Rodnina D and Freitas VJ (2004). Pusedopregnancy in Saanen goats (Capra hircus) raised in Northeast Brazil. Veterinary Research Communications 28:119-125.

Mialot JP, Soboureau L, Gueraud JM, Prengere E, Parezot D, Pirot G, Desquesnel R, Petat M and Chemineau P (1991). La psuedogestation chez la chevre. Observations preliminaries. Record Medicine Veterinary 167:383-390.

Pieterse MC and Taverne MAM (1986). Hydrometra in goats: Diagnosis with real time ultrasound and treatment with prostaglandin or oxytoicin. Theriogenology 26:813-821.

Purohit GN, Gupta AK, Gaur M, Sharma A and Bihani D (2006). Periparturient disorders in goats: A retrospective analysis of 324 cases. Dairy Goat Journal 84:24-33.

Purohit GN, Shekher C, Kumar P and Solanki K (2012). Induced termination of pregnancy in domestic farm animals. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science 2:1-12.

Smith MC (1986). Anestrus, psuedopregnancy and cystic follicles. In: Current Therapy in Theriogenology. Eds DA Morrow, WB Saunders Company Philadelphia USA pp 585-586.

Taverne MAM, Hesselink JW, Bevers MM, Van Oord HA and Kornalijnslijper JE (1995). Aetiology and endocrinology of psuedopregnancy in the goat. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 30:228-230.

Taverne MAM, Lavoir MC, Bevers MM, Pieterse MC and Dielemen SJ (1988). Peripheral plasma prolactin and progesterone levels in pseudopregnant goats during bromocryptine treatment. Theriogenology 30:333-43.

Wittek T, Erices J and Elze K (1998). Histology of the endometrium, clinical-chemical parameters of the uterine fluid and blood plasma concentrations of progesterone, estradiol-17 b and prolactin during hydrometra in goats. Small Ruminant Research 30: 105-112.

Wittek T, Richter A, Erices J and Elze K (1997). Incidnece, diagnosis, therapy and subsequent fertility in goats with hydrometra. Tierarztl Prax 25:576-582.

3

3-Title: Ultrasonographic measurement of crown rump length to predict gestational age in Barbari goats

Authors: Bharat Sharma, Swadesh Sharma, OP Shrivastava, VK  Bhardwaj, Sourabh Gupta and RPS Baghel

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):113-116.

How to cite this manuscript: Sharma Bharat, Sharma Swadesh, Shrivastava OP, Bhardwaj VK, Gupta Sourabh and Baghel RPS (2012).Ultrasonographic measurement of crown rump length to predict gestational age in Barbari goats. Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):113-116.

Abstract

Ultrasound imaging was commenced after 20 days of service up to kidding in 17 clinically normal does of different breeds with weight ranging from 15 to 60 kg. Animals were divided into 2 groups i.e. Group I comprised of does imaged 20-60 days from last service.  In group II comprised of does imaged 60-90 days from last service. In Group I the average measurement (cm) of gestational age and CRL was 48.25±1.108 and 4.8±0.409, respectively. In group II the average measurement of gestational age and CRL (cm) during gestation was 65.69±1.27 and 12.61±0.622 respectively. It was concluded that CRL is a good indicator to predict fetal age from last service.

Reference

Abdelghafar RM, Ahmed BH and Bakhlet AO (2007). Ultrasonic measurement of crown-rump length and biparital diameter to predict gestational age in saanen goats. Journal of Veterinary and Animal Advances 6(3):454-457.

Amer HA (2009). Ultrasonographic assessment of early pregnancy diagnosis, fetometry and sex determination in goats. Animal  Reproduction  Science 117(3-4):226-231.

Haibel GK (1988). Real-time ultrasonic fetal head measurement and gestational age in dairy goats. Theriogenology 30(6):1053-1057.

Haibel, GK (1990). Use of ultrasonography in reproductive management of sheep and goat herds. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 6:597-613.

Ishwar AK (1994). Pregnancy diagnosis in sheep and goats: A review. Small Ruminant Research 17(1):37-44.

Karen AM, Fattouh el-SM and Abu-Zeid SS (2009). Estimation of gestational age in Egyptian native goats by ultrasonographic fetometry. Animal Reproduction Science 114(1-3):167-74.

Karki DB, UK, Sharmqa RK Rauniyar (2006). Study of accuracy of commonly used fetal parameters for estimation of gestational age. Journal of Nepal Medical Association 45(162):233-237.

Lee Y, Lee O, Cho J, Shin H, Choi Y, Shim Y, Choi W, Shin H, Lee D, Lee G and Shin S (2005). Ultrasonic measurement of fetal parameters for estimation of gestational age in Korean black goats. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 67(5):497-502.

Medan M, Watanabe G, Absy G Sasaki K, Sharawy S and Taya K (2004). Early pregnancy diagnosis by means of ultrasonography as a method of improving reproductive efficiency in goats. Journal of Reproduction and Development 50(4):391-397.

 Padilla-Rivas GR, Sohnrey B and Holtz W (2004). Early pregnancy detection by real time ultrasonography in Boer goats. Small Ruminant Research 58(1):87-92.

Reichenbach H, Oliveira MMA, MeineckeTilmann S and Buerstel DM (2004). Sexagem fetal n cabra e na ovelha por ultrasonografia. In: Diagnostico De Gestacao Na Cabra E Na Ovelha. Vavela, Sao Paulo, pp. 117-136.

Singh NS, Gawande PG, Mishra OP, Nema RK, Mishra UK and Singh M (2004). Accuracy of ultrasonography in-early pregnancy diagnosis in doe. Asian Australian Journal of Animal Sciences 17:760-768.

Snedocar GW and Cochran WG (1994). Statistical Methods. 7th Edn, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, New Delhi, pp 312-317.

Suguna K, Mehrotra S, Agarwal SK, Hoque M, Singh SK, Shanker U and Sarath T (2007). Early pregnancy diagnosis and embryonic and fetal development using real time B mode ultrasound in goats. Journal of Small Ruminant 80(1-3):80-86.

Weinraub Z, Schneider D, Langer R, Brown M and Caspi E (1979). Ultrasonographic measurement of fetal growth parameters for estimation of gestational age and fetal weight. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 15(10): 29-32.

2

2-Title: Development of embryonic stem cell clone from in vitro derived buffalo embryos in feeder and feeder free culture conditions

Authors: Gopal Puri and Sadhan Bag

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):109-112.

How to cite this manuscript: Puri Gopal and Bag Sadhan (2012).Development of embryonic stem cell clone from in vitro derived buffalo embryos in feeder and feeder free culture conditions. Ruminant Science 1(2):109-112.

Abstract

The present experiment was carried out to study the effects of feeder or feeder free culture system on developmental potency of in vitro derived buffalo embryos to embryonic stem cell clones. In vitro produced buffalo embryos were made zona free and cultured on two types of feeder layer (buffalo and murine fetal fibroblast monolayer) and two types of feeder free coated plates (matrigel and fibronectin extra cellular matrix) culture system. The percentage of primary stem cell clone development was significantly higher (P<0.01) on buffalo and murine fibroblast monolayers as compared to the feeder free coated plates. The fibroblast monolayer was significantly better than feeder free coated plates in development of embryonic stem cell clones. It can be concluded that feeder cell layer culture system was found to be significantly better than feeder free culture system and matrigel coating plates were found to be better than fibronectin coating plate in development of embryonic stem (ES) cell clones.

References

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1-Title: Ruminant mammary stem cells: Methods of identification and status

Authors: Ratan K Choudhary and Shanti Choudhary

Source: Ruminant Science (2012)-1(2):101-108.

How to cite this manuscript: Choudhary RK and Choudhary Shanti (2012). Ruminant mammary stem cells: Methods of identification and status. Ruminant Science 1(2):101-108.

Abstract

Mammary stem cells (MaSC) are the epithelial stem cell, which generates functional mammary gland upon transplantation into epithelium-cleared mammary fat pad. Two distinct functions of MaSC are; 1) maintenance of stem cell population (self-renewal) and, 2) production of differentiated cells of various cell lineages (differentiation). Knowledge of MaSC will provide insight into extensive expansion capacity and differentiation characteristics of mammary gland. Additionally, identification of cell hierarchy will broaden understanding of mammary gland biology. In this review, we have discussed different methods of identification of human and mouse MaSC. These methods were employed to isolate bovine and goat MaSC. We have also discussed the status of ruminant (bovine, goat, sheep and buffalo) MaSC. Knowledge of bovine, goat and sheep MaSC is recent and limited whereas information on buffalo MaSC is still lacking.

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