44-Title: Surgical management of degenerated nasal bones in a crossbred cow

Authors: Tarunbir Singh, Simrat Sagar Singh, Jitender Mohindroo, Mulinti Raghunath, Pallavi Verma, Navdeep Singh and Narinder Singh Saini

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):205-207.


How to cite this manuscript: Singh Tarunbir, Singh Simrat Sagar, Mohindroo Jitender, Raghunath Mulinti, Verma Pallavi, Singh Navdeep and Saini Narinder Singh (2020). Surgical management of degenerated nasal bones in a crossbred cow. Ruminant Science 9(1):205-207.


Anderson DE and Jean SG (2008). Surgery of the upper respiratory system. Veterinary Clinics North America Food Animal Practice 24:319-334.

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Hedlund CS (1991). Tracheostomy. Problems in Veterinary Medicine 3(2):198-209.

Jean GS and Robertson JT (1987). Cystic nasal concha as a cause of unilateral nasal obstruction in a young bull. Canadian Veterinary Journal 28:251-253.

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Tremaine WH and Dixon PM (2002). Diseases of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses. In: Equine Respiratory Diseases. Eds: P Lekeux, Publisher: International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca, New York, USA.


4-Title: Pathomorphological alterations during obstructive urolithiasis in a buffalo calf (Bubalus bubalis)

Authors: Devesh Kumar Giri, DK Jolhe, RC Ghosh, DK Kashyap, PM Sonkusale and Poornima Gumasta

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):21-23.


How to cite this manuscript: Giri Devesh Kumar, Jolhe DK, Ghosh RC, Kashyap DK, Sonkusale PM and Gumasta Poornima (2020). Pathomorphological alterations during obstructive urolithiasis in a buffalo calf (Bubalus bubalis). Ruminant Science 9(1):21-23.


Urinary stone formation is a common disease with an increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Male ruminants who are castrated and are fed paddy straw without mineral supplementation are predisposed for obstructive urolithiasis in due course. The present paper throws some light on association of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in causing emphysematous cystitis. It also deals with haematobiochemical changes like haemoconcentration, increased blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and pathomorphological alterations viz. hydrothorax, atelectasis of lung, haemorrhagic emphysematous cystitis having cobblestone appearance in obstructive urolithiasis leading to cystorrhexis in a buffalo calf.


Kashyap DK, Giri DK, Dewangan G and Tiwari SK (2016). Obstructive urolithiasis in male buffalo calves-A report of three cases. Buffalo Bulletin 35(2):151-154.

Loretti AP, Oliveira LO, Cruz CEF and Driemeier D (2003). Clinical and pathological study of an outbreak of obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot cattle in Southern Brazil. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 23 (2): 61-64.

Nikvand AA, Haji Hajikolaei MR, Ghadrdanmashhadi AR, Ghorbanpour M and Mohammadian B (2014). Bacteriological study of urine and its relationship with histopathological findings of bladder and kidney in river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 8(3):157-161.

Pandey Manish, Singh DV, Rastogi SK, Singh Brijesh, Kumar Sanjay and Singh SK (2018). Physical and biochemical attributes of urine of Pantja goats. Ruminant Science 7(1):101-104.

Sureshkumar RV, Veena P, Sankar P, Dhana Lakshmi N and Kokila S (2011). Urolithiasis in a buffalo calf – a case report. Buffalo Bulletin 30(4):222-225.

Vegad JL and Swamy M (2010). A Textbook of Veterinary Systemic Pathology. 2nd Edn, IBDC Publishers, Lucknow, India. 220-224.

Verma MK, Purohit S, Gowtham Achintya, Singh PR, Tripathi DM, Pandey Vijay and Pandey RP (2017). Excretory urographic and ultrasonographic studies of urinary system in goats (Capra hircus). Ruminant Science 6(1):177-184.


5-Title: Clinico-diagnostic and therapeutic investigations on pneumonia in cattle

Authors: CS Jaibhaye, AU Bhikane, PS Masare and AV Bhonsle

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):25-32.


How to cite this manuscript: Jaibhaye CS, Bhikane AU, Masare PS and Bhonsle AV (2020). Clinico-diagnostic and therapeutic investigations on pneumonia in cattle. Ruminant Science 9(1):25-32.


Pneumonia is a multi-factorial respiratory disorder commonly found in cattle and is causing heavy economic losses to farmers due to increased calf mortality, costs of medication, production losses and decreased draft ability in bullocks. Hence the present study was undertaken to investigate epidemiological, clinico-diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of pneumonia in cattle. On screening 1211 cattle reported to TVCC, COVAS, Udgir for different ailments, 46 animals were found positive for pneumonia, suggestive of overall prevalence of 3.80%. The higher prevalence of pneumonia was observed in young male cattle put to heavy work and exposed to climatic stress during monsoon. The typical signs of pneumonia included fever, nasal discharge, dyspnoea, coughing, chest pain and abnormal lung sounds. Haemogram showed significant leucocytosis accompanied by neutrophilia with non- significant changes in other blood parameters. On radiographic examination of thorax, a variable degree of congestion and diffuse consolidation of lungs was noticed. The faecal examination revealed negative for lungworm larvae infestation. The bacteria isolated from nasal swab were identified as Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., E. coli, Corynebacterium sp., Klebsiella sp., Mannheimia haemolytica, Brevundimonas sp., Pseudomonas sp.. The results of antibiotic sensitivity test of isolated organisms revealed highest sensitivity to gentamicin (87.50%), followed by ceftriaxone plus tazobactam and enrofloxacin (58.33% each), amoxicillin plus sulbactam (54.16%), ceftiofur sodium (50.00%), chloramphenicol (45.83%), ciprofloxacin (41.66%), moxifloxacin (33.33%), oxytetracycline (16.66%) and complete resistance to penicillin. Thirty six pneumonia affected cattle were randomly divided into four treatment groups viz., Group A (gentamicin @ 4 mg/ kg), Group B (enrofloxacin @ 5 mg/ kg),   Group C (moxifloxacin @ 5 mg/ kg ) and Group D (ceftiofur @ 1.6 mg/ kg). All 36 treated cattle clinically cured within 3 to 15 days, indicating 100 per cent recovery rate. The evaluation of comparative efficacy revealed that gentamicin is superior to other drugs in the treatment of pneumonia in cattle.


Ananthakrishna LR, Kamboj Aman, Saini Mohini and Gupta PK (2015). Characterization of extracellular domain of glycoprotein e gene of an Indian isolate of bovine herpes virus-1. Ruminant Science 4(1):15-20.

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6-Title: Alteration in the hemato-biochemical profile of mastitis affected lactating dairy cattle

Authors: Zul I Huma, Neelesh Sharma, Touqeer Ahmed, Savleen Kour and AK Pathak

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):33-36.


How to cite this manuscript: Huma Zul I, Sharma Neelesh, Ahmed Touqeer, Kour Savleen and Pathak AK (2020). Alteration in the hemato-biochemical profile of mastitis affected lactating dairy cattle. Ruminant Science 9(1):33-36.


The present investigation was conducted on 48 lactating dairy cattle to assess the alteration in blood haemato-biochemical profile in mastitis. These animals were further divided into control, subclinical mastitis and clinical mastitis groups of 16 animals each. It was observed that total leukocyte count (TLC), particularly neutrophil counts, were increased significantly. Significant changes were also noticed in the serum total protein, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride which increased significantly (p<0.05) in clinical cases over the control healthy animals. Thus, the degree of alteration in hemato-biochemical parameters can be helpful to assess the severity of the infection in mastitis cows.


Das Gunjan, Lalnunpuia C, Sarma K, Behera SK, Dutta TK and Bandyopadhyay Samiran (2015). Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus associated sub-clinical mastitis in crossbred cows in Mizoram. Ruminant Science 4(2):167-170.

Diwakar, Akriti, Choudhary Sunita, Meena Dhirendra, Bhati Taruna and Kataria AK (2019). Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of some Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk from goats with clinical mastitis. Ruminant Science 8(1):19-22.

Ghaffar A, Hussain R, Abbas G, Ali MH, Ahmed H, Nawaz J, Choudhary IR, Haneef J and Khan S (2017). Arsenic and copper sulfate in combination causes testicular and serum biochemical changes in White Leghorn cockerels. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 37(4):375-380.

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Katsoulos PD, Christodoulopoulos GMA, Karatzia MA, Pourliotis K and Kritas SK (2010). The role of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase in the diagnosis of subclinical intramammary infections in dairy sheep and goats. Journal of Dairy Research 77:107-111.

Mosallam TE, Ahmed SYS, Ahmed AR and Alaam HA (2006). Clinicopathological studies on mastitis in dairy buffalo and cattle. Doctoral dissertation, MSc thesis submitted to Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Nirmali WKR, Priyabhashana AHL, Bandara AMS and Magamage MPS (2018). Assessment of milk quality of upcountry dairy farm in Sri Lanka. Ruminant Science 7(1):1-4.

Orellano MS, Isaac P, Breser ML, Bohl LP, Conesa A, Falcone RD and Porporatto C (2019). Chitosan nanoparticles enhance the antibacterial activity of the native polymer against bovine mastitis pathogens. Carbohydrate Polymers 213:1-9.

Qayyum A, Khan JA, Hussain R, Ahmad TI, Zahoor I, Ahmad M, Awais M, Ahmed N, Ahmad Z and Mubeen M (2018). Correlations of blood serum and milk biochemical profiles with subclinical mastitis in Cholistani cattle. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 55(4):959-964.

Raorane Abhay, Chothe Shubhadha, Dubal ZB, Barbuddhe SB, Karunakaran M, Doijad Swapnil, Pathak Ajay, Poharkar Krupali and Singh NP (2013). Antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis in Goa. Ruminant Science 2(2):139-144.

Sarvesha K, Satyanarayana ML, Narayanaswamy HD, Rao S, Yathiraj S, Isloor S, Mukartal SY, Srikanth M, Anuradha ME and Kamal H (2016). Effect of subclinical and clinical mastitis on hemato-biochemical profile and milk leukocyte count in indigenous cows. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 16(3):5829-5834.

Singh Pawanjit, Nigam Rajesh, Kumar Amit and Pandey Vijay (2018). Isolation and molecular characterization of pathogens associated with mastitis in Sahiwal cows. Ruminant Science 7(1):43-46.

Singh R, Bhardwaj RK, Azad MS and Beigh SA (2014). Effect of mastitis on haemato-biochemical and plasma mineral profile in crossbred cattle. Indian Journal of Animal Research 48:63-66.

Sunita, Diwakar and Kataria AK (2017). Antibiotic resistance pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk of cattle with clinical mastitis. Ruminant Science 6(2):319-322.

Zaki MS, El-Battrawy N and Mostafa SO (2010). Some biochemical studies on Friesian suffering from subclinical mastitis. Nature and Science 8(4):143-146.


7-Title: Enriching of camel milk composition and fatty acid profile by supplementation of flaxseed in the dromedary camel diet

Authors: Tahereh Mohammadabadi and Abdul Raziq Kakar

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):37-39.


How to cite this manuscript: Mohammadabadi Tahereh and Kakar Abdul Raziq (2020). Enriching of camel milk composition and fatty acid profile by supplementation of flaxseed in the dromedary camel diet. Ruminant Science 9(1):37-39.


Present study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementing heated flaxseed on the milk production, composition and fatty acid profiles of dairy camels. Eight dromedary lactating camels with an average body weight of 420±26 kg assigned to 2 groups. Treatments were included control; grazing without flaxseed and experimental treatment with 100-250 g flaxseed per day for a weekly gradual adaption in a one month study. The camels had access to forage in the desert and at all fed with concentrate mixture. Milk production was recorded, and milk composition and fatty acid profiles were determined. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design. The result revealed flaxseeds supplementation increased (P<0.05) milk production of the camels as compared to the control (6.5 and 4.1 litre/day, respectively). Supplementation of flaxseed increased milk fat percentage (4.2 versus 3.7%) and decreased milk lactose (4.1 versus 4.35%) as compared to the control (P<0.05). But milk protein and ash were not different between treatments (P>0.05). Using supplemental flaxseeds in camels diet decreased saturated fatty acids and increased unsaturated fatty acids such as C18 and CLA (P<0.05). The value for C18:3 were 0.97 and 1.51% for control and flaxseed treatment, respectively. The current result showed that supplementation of heated flaxseed gradually at the rate of by 100-250 g/day in weekly interval to dromedary dairy camels’ increased milk production and percentage of unsaturated fatty acids with decreased saturated fatty acids composition of milk, which could be able to influence the heart health. Hence, it is recommended that supplementation of 100-250 g flaxseed in dromedary camels’ diet for increasing of omega-3 and improves the milk quality toward health aims.


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8-Title: Milk quality as affected by the source and the season in Khartoum state

Authors: MM Abdelaziz, HZ Rania and Mohamed T Ibrahim

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):41-44.


How to cite this manuscript: Abdelaziz MM, Rania HZ and Ibrahim Mohamed T (2020). Milk quality as affected by the source and the season in Khartoum state. Ruminant Science 9(1):41-44.


Present study was performed to assess the effect of the source and season on some physicochemical and microbiological properties of cow’s raw milk. A total of 120 samples of cow’s milk were collected from different sources (40 samples from each dairy farms, collection centres and groceries) during the summer and autumn season. Samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis by Lactoskan. The fat, protein, lactose, total solids, pH, added water and total bacteria count (TBC) were estimated. A total of 48 swab samples were collected from different farms (24 samples from each milkers hands, and milk utensils) during the summer and autumn season and were subjected to total bacterial count. General linear model was used to estimate the effect of source and season. The protein, lactose and added water were significantly affected by the source of milk collection while the milk fat, protein, lactose, total solids and TBC were significantly affected by season. In addition, a significant interaction between source and season was obtained on milk fat, protein, lactose and total solids.


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9-Title: Isolation and identification of bacteria in subclinical mastitis in cattle from Bikaner city

Authors: Savita, AP Singh, TC Nayak, A Chahar, R Yadav and JP Kachhawa

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):45-48.


How to cite this manuscript: Savita, Singh AP, Nayak TC, Chahar A, Yadav R and Kachhawa JP (2020). Isolation and identification of bacteria in subclinical mastitis in cattle from Bikaner city. Ruminant Science 9(1):45-48.


Present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of commonly occurring subclinical mastitis in 100 cows from LRS, Rathi farm of the institute and individual holding in and around the Bikaner city were screened for subclinical mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent pathogen followed by Streptococcus agalactiae, E. coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus uberis and Bacillus cereus.


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10-Title: Assessment of comparative efficacy of drugs against benzimidazole resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of goats

Authors: Kusum Lata, G Das, NK Kumbhakar and S Nath

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):49-54.

How to cite this manuscript: Lata Kusum, Das G, Kumbhakar NK and Nath S (2020). Assessment of comparative efficacy of drugs against benzimidazole resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. Ruminant Science 9(1):49-54.


The present investigation was undertaken to study the status of Benzimidazole (BZ) resistance in caprine nematodes of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh and to study the efficacy of Fenbendazole (FBZ) with Piperonyl Butoxide (PBT) and Methimazole (MTH) against caprine GI nematodes. Prevalence of BZ resistance, detected by in-vivo faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), revealed goats reared in farm condition were resistance as compared to the field. In-vitro egg hatch assay (EHA) also revealed resistance in strongyles of the farm as compared to field conditions. Log probit analysis with ED50 value of 0.149-0.238 µg TBZ/ml in farm and 0.003 – 0.053 µg TBZ/ml in the field, confirmed the existence of BZ resistant nematodes in farm conditions. Haemonchus contortus was the dominant nematode exhibiting resistance to BZ treatment followed by Trichostrongylus sp. and Strongyloides sp.

In order to study the comparative efficacy, the farm goats showing resistance to BZ anthelminthic were treated with FBZ+PBT @ 7.5 mg/kg and 63 mg/kg b.wt. and FBZ+MTH@ 7.5 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg b.wt., respectively. The rates of reduction were higher for FBZ+PBT treated goats with 98.5% FECR as compared to FBZ+MTH and only FBZ treated goats with 65.60% and 80.60% FECR, respectively indicated high efficacy of FBZ+PBT combination against resistant GI nematode in comparison to FBZ treatment. Results of in vitro EHA corroborating with that of FECRT by showing high efficacy of FBZ+PBT combination. To conclude, the prevalence of BZ resistance was detected against caprine GI nematodes in farm conditions and can be successfully treated by a combination of Fenbendazole and Piperonyl Butoxide.


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26-Title: Farmers’ valuation of attributes associated with animal healthcare services in Uttar Pradesh (India): Application of conjoint analysis

Authors: D Bardhan, Sanjay Kumar and Rishi Kumar Singh

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):125-130.


How to cite this manuscript: Bardhan D, Kumar Sanjay and Singh Rishi Kumar (2020). Farmers’ valuation of attributes associated with animal healthcare services in Uttar Pradesh (India): Application of conjoint analysis. Ruminant Science 9(1):125-130.


The present study has analyzed perceptions of livestock farmers towards the provision of animal healthcare services (AHS) in terms of providing empirical estimates of farmers’ valuation of different attributes associated with AHS. The study was conducted among 1304 households from all 9 agro-climatic regions of Uttar Pradesh state of India. Using multivariate data analytical techniques, households were categorized into poor (48%), medium (36.5%) and rich (15%) wealth categories. The analytical procedure of conjoint analysis was used to know quantitative estimates of farmers’ relative valuation of different AHS attributes. Respondents’ ratings of different AHS providers on different attributes revealed no significant differences in the mean ratings given to attributes such as proximity, quality and affordability. Also, there were no significant differences in the mean ratings for each attribute for a particular AHS provider across different wealth categories. The only pattern that emerged was lower score given to ‘proximity’ as compared to ‘affordability and ‘quality’ across different wealth status categories and various AHS providers, thus indicating that the real issue in accessing AHS is proximity, i.e. easy access to AHS at the time of need. Application of conjoint analysis to assess farmers’ relative valuation of different AHS attributes revealed  ‘place of service’ as the most important attribute for all categories of respondents, closely followed by ‘supply of medicines by service providers’ and ‘type of service provider’.


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11-Title: Detection of Trypanosoma evansi in cross breed cattle of North Gujarat

Authors: JG Patel, SH Raval, RS Parmar, SS Patel, RL Patel, BJ Patel and DV Joshi

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):55-58.


How to cite this manuscript: Patel JG, Raval SH, Parmar RS, Patel SS, Patel RL, Patel BJ and Joshi DV (2020). Detection of Trypanosoma evansi in cross breed cattle of North Gujarat. Ruminant Science 9(1):55-58.


Present study was carried out on 997 cross breed cattle with recurrent fever, muscular weakness, anaemia and loss of appetite. Out of 997 samples, 116 were found anaemic (Hb<8.5) through haematological examination. Blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on 116 blood samples to detect trypanosoma. Examination of blood well as buffy coat smear(s) revealed that only 11 (9.48%) were found positive for Trypanosoma, while 37 (31.90%) out of 116 animals were found positive in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Hence, PCR is considered the most suitable diagnostic and confirmatory test for early diagnosis of trypanosomosis infection and consequently controlling programs.


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