44

44-Title: Surgical management of degenerated nasal bones in a crossbred cow

Authors: Tarunbir Singh, Simrat Sagar Singh, Jitender Mohindroo, Mulinti Raghunath, Pallavi Verma, Navdeep Singh and Narinder Singh Saini

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):205-207.

 

How to cite this manuscript: Singh Tarunbir, Singh Simrat Sagar, Mohindroo Jitender, Raghunath Mulinti, Verma Pallavi, Singh Navdeep and Saini Narinder Singh (2020). Surgical management of degenerated nasal bones in a crossbred cow. Ruminant Science 9(1):205-207.

References

Anderson DE and Jean SG (2008). Surgery of the upper respiratory system. Veterinary Clinics North America Food Animal Practice 24:319-334.

Crocker CB and Rings DM (1998). Lymphosarcoma of the frontal sinus and nasal passage in a cow.  Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 213: 1472-1474.

Hedlund CS (1991). Tracheostomy. Problems in Veterinary Medicine 3(2):198-209.

Jean GS and Robertson JT (1987). Cystic nasal concha as a cause of unilateral nasal obstruction in a young bull. Canadian Veterinary Journal 28:251-253.

Mackey DR (1980). Diseases of the upper respiratory tract. In: Bovine Medicine and Surgery. Eds: HE Amstutz. 2nd Edn, Santa Barbara, Calif.: American Veterinary Publications, pp 707-714.

Mansmann RA and Mcallister ES (1982). Equine Medicine and Surgery. 3rd Edn, Santa Barbara, American Veterinary Publications, pp 729-730.

Radostits OM, Clive CG, Hinchcliff KW and Constable PD (2007). Veterinary Medicine: A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs and Goats. 10th Edn, WB Saunders Company.

Ross MW, Richardson DW, Hackett RP, Tulleners EP, Orsini JA and Ohnemus TF (1986). Nasal obstruction caused by cystic nasal conchae in cattle. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 188:857-860.

Schleining JA (2016). Surgery of the sinuses and eyes. Veterinary Clinics Food Animal Practice 32:571-591.

Tremaine WH and Dixon PM (2002). Diseases of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses. In: Equine Respiratory Diseases. Eds: P Lekeux, Publisher: International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca, New York, USA.

4

4-Title: Pathomorphological alterations during obstructive urolithiasis in a buffalo calf (Bubalus bubalis)

Authors: Devesh Kumar Giri, DK Jolhe, RC Ghosh, DK Kashyap, PM Sonkusale and Poornima Gumasta

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):21-23.

 

How to cite this manuscript: Giri Devesh Kumar, Jolhe DK, Ghosh RC, Kashyap DK, Sonkusale PM and Gumasta Poornima (2020). Pathomorphological alterations during obstructive urolithiasis in a buffalo calf (Bubalus bubalis). Ruminant Science 9(1):21-23.

Abstract

Urinary stone formation is a common disease with an increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Male ruminants who are castrated and are fed paddy straw without mineral supplementation are predisposed for obstructive urolithiasis in due course. The present paper throws some light on association of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in causing emphysematous cystitis. It also deals with haematobiochemical changes like haemoconcentration, increased blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and pathomorphological alterations viz. hydrothorax, atelectasis of lung, haemorrhagic emphysematous cystitis having cobblestone appearance in obstructive urolithiasis leading to cystorrhexis in a buffalo calf.

References

Kashyap DK, Giri DK, Dewangan G and Tiwari SK (2016). Obstructive urolithiasis in male buffalo calves-A report of three cases. Buffalo Bulletin 35(2):151-154.

Loretti AP, Oliveira LO, Cruz CEF and Driemeier D (2003). Clinical and pathological study of an outbreak of obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot cattle in Southern Brazil. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 23 (2): 61-64.

Nikvand AA, Haji Hajikolaei MR, Ghadrdanmashhadi AR, Ghorbanpour M and Mohammadian B (2014). Bacteriological study of urine and its relationship with histopathological findings of bladder and kidney in river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 8(3):157-161.

Pandey Manish, Singh DV, Rastogi SK, Singh Brijesh, Kumar Sanjay and Singh SK (2018). Physical and biochemical attributes of urine of Pantja goats. Ruminant Science 7(1):101-104.

Sureshkumar RV, Veena P, Sankar P, Dhana Lakshmi N and Kokila S (2011). Urolithiasis in a buffalo calf – a case report. Buffalo Bulletin 30(4):222-225.

Vegad JL and Swamy M (2010). A Textbook of Veterinary Systemic Pathology. 2nd Edn, IBDC Publishers, Lucknow, India. 220-224.

Verma MK, Purohit S, Gowtham Achintya, Singh PR, Tripathi DM, Pandey Vijay and Pandey RP (2017). Excretory urographic and ultrasonographic studies of urinary system in goats (Capra hircus). Ruminant Science 6(1):177-184.

5

5-Title: Clinico-diagnostic and therapeutic investigations on pneumonia in cattle

Authors: CS Jaibhaye, AU Bhikane, PS Masare and AV Bhonsle

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):25-32.

 

How to cite this manuscript: Jaibhaye CS, Bhikane AU, Masare PS and Bhonsle AV (2020). Clinico-diagnostic and therapeutic investigations on pneumonia in cattle. Ruminant Science 9(1):25-32.

Abstract

Pneumonia is a multi-factorial respiratory disorder commonly found in cattle and is causing heavy economic losses to farmers due to increased calf mortality, costs of medication, production losses and decreased draft ability in bullocks. Hence the present study was undertaken to investigate epidemiological, clinico-diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of pneumonia in cattle. On screening 1211 cattle reported to TVCC, COVAS, Udgir for different ailments, 46 animals were found positive for pneumonia, suggestive of overall prevalence of 3.80%. The higher prevalence of pneumonia was observed in young male cattle put to heavy work and exposed to climatic stress during monsoon. The typical signs of pneumonia included fever, nasal discharge, dyspnoea, coughing, chest pain and abnormal lung sounds. Haemogram showed significant leucocytosis accompanied by neutrophilia with non- significant changes in other blood parameters. On radiographic examination of thorax, a variable degree of congestion and diffuse consolidation of lungs was noticed. The faecal examination revealed negative for lungworm larvae infestation. The bacteria isolated from nasal swab were identified as Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., E. coli, Corynebacterium sp., Klebsiella sp., Mannheimia haemolytica, Brevundimonas sp., Pseudomonas sp.. The results of antibiotic sensitivity test of isolated organisms revealed highest sensitivity to gentamicin (87.50%), followed by ceftriaxone plus tazobactam and enrofloxacin (58.33% each), amoxicillin plus sulbactam (54.16%), ceftiofur sodium (50.00%), chloramphenicol (45.83%), ciprofloxacin (41.66%), moxifloxacin (33.33%), oxytetracycline (16.66%) and complete resistance to penicillin. Thirty six pneumonia affected cattle were randomly divided into four treatment groups viz., Group A (gentamicin @ 4 mg/ kg), Group B (enrofloxacin @ 5 mg/ kg),   Group C (moxifloxacin @ 5 mg/ kg ) and Group D (ceftiofur @ 1.6 mg/ kg). All 36 treated cattle clinically cured within 3 to 15 days, indicating 100 per cent recovery rate. The evaluation of comparative efficacy revealed that gentamicin is superior to other drugs in the treatment of pneumonia in cattle.

References

Ananthakrishna LR, Kamboj Aman, Saini Mohini and Gupta PK (2015). Characterization of extracellular domain of glycoprotein e gene of an Indian isolate of bovine herpes virus-1. Ruminant Science 4(1):15-20.

Bateman KG, Bair J, Slocombe JO, Leslie KE, Curtis RA and Menzies PI (1986). Verminous pneumonia in adult dairy cows in southern Ontario due to Dictyocaulus viviparus. Canadian Veterinary Journal 27:233-236.

Cruickshank R, Duguid JP, Marmion BP and Swain RHA (1975). Medical Microbiology Vol. II, 12th Edn, Churchil Livingstone, New York. pp 202-203.

Donkersgoed JV, Carl S, Ribble Leona G, Boyer and Hugh GG and Townsend (1993). Epidemiological study of enzootic pneumonia in dairy calves in Saskatchewan Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 57:247-254.

El-Tahawy Abdelgawad Salah and Mostafa Ibrahim Ahmed (2015). Prevalence, risk factors and cross sectional epidemiology for some selected diseases and syndromes affecting Rahmani sheep with particular spotlight on their economic consequences. Ruminant Science 4(2):159-165.

Isabelle M, Gilles F, Luc Breton, Pierre H, Guy B and Laurent B (2008). Radiographic detection of thoracic lesions in adult cows: A retrospective study of 42 cases (1995-2002) Canadian Veterinary Journal 49:261-267.

Jared DT, Robert WF, Terry WL, Douglas LS and Anthony WC (2010). The epidemiology of bovine respiratory diseases: What is the evidence for predisposing factor? Canadian Veterinary Journal 51:1096-1102.

Kurcubic V, Dokovic R, Vidanovic D, Sekler M, Matovic KZ, Ilic Z and Stojkovic J (2013). Bovine respiratory disease complex: Viral and bacterial pathogens in Serbia. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry 29:3743

Lekeux P and Art T (1988). Effect of enrofloxacin therapy on shipping fever pneumonia in feedlot cattle. Veterinary Record 123:205-207.

Loneragan GH, Dargatz DA, Morley PS and Smith MA (2001). Trends in mortality ratios among cattle in US feedlots. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 219:1122-1127.

Lopez A and Bildfell R (1992) Pulmonary inflammation associated with aspirated meconium and epithelial cells in calves. Veterinary Pathology 29:104-111.

Machhaliya MH, Patel BJ, Joshi DV, Raval SH and Patel JG (2015). Pathomorphological studies on spontaneously occurring pulmonary lesions in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Ruminant Science 4(1):51-53.

Makhdoomi DM, Mohsin AG, Noor AT and Zahid UN (2013). Therapeutic management of respiratory infections in large and small ruminants-A clinical study of 96 animals. Intas Polivet 14(I):88-92.

Mandal Ravi Shankar Kumar, Lekshman Aishwarya, Rana Ankush, Gaykwad Chandrakiran, Kumar Surender, Suthar NA, Vadhana Prasanna, Mondal DB and Dixit SK (2016). Diagnosis and therapeutic management of hemorrhagic septicemia: A case report in 4 buffaloes. Ruminant Science 5(2):287-289.

Mulei CM, Gitau GK and Mbuthia PG (1995). Cause of calf mortality in Kabet area of Kenya. Onderstepoort.  Journal of Veterinary Research 62:181-185.

Pal RS and Bamania MK (2016). Studies on mortality rate in preweaning kids of Sirohi goat. Ruminant Science 5(1):91-93.

Pirie HM, Petrie  L, Pringle CR, Allen EM and Kennedy GJ (1981). Acute fatal pneumonia in calves due to respiratory syncytial virus. Veterinary Record 108:411-416.

Portis E, Lindeman C, Johansen L and Stoltman G (2012). A ten-year study of antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria that cause bovine respiratory disease complex- Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida and Histophilus somni in the United States and Canada. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostics and Investigations 24:932-44.

Priyadarshi BH, Joshi DV, Patel BJ, Raval SH and Patel HA (2013). Pathomorphology of spontaneously occurring pulmonary lesions in sheep (Ovis aries). Ruminant Science 2(1):31-35.

Kumar Praveen, Kumar Ashok, Sharma Anshu and Yadav Rajendra (2015). Bovine respiratory disease complex in buffaloes-A study of associated bacterial isolates and their antibiograms. Intas Polivet 16(2):189-192.

Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchclif KW and Constable P (2010). Veterinary Medicine. 10th Edn,  Sounders Elsevier Edinburgh, London. pp 508-517.

Sen S and Albay MK (2003). Aetiology of respiratory tract infections in calves and evaluation of treatment with combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Indian Veterinary Journal 80:519-21.

Shakespeare AS (2012). Aspiration lung disorders in bovines: A case report and review. Journal of South African Veterinary Association 83(1):1-7.

Singh P and Singh KP (2009). Neonatal calf pneumonia and its therapeutic management. Intas Polivet 10(2):280-281.

Smith RA (2000) Effects of feedlot disease on economics, production and carcass value. Bovine Practitioner 33:125-128.

Smith BP (2009). Large Animal Internal Medicine. 4th Edn, Mosby Publishers, Missouri. pp 602-607.

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Tripathi N, Jadon NS and Jaiswal S (2012). Therapeutic efficacy of epipleural blockage for the treatment for aspiratory pneumonia in buffalo calves. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 32(1):27-29.

Van der fels- Kierx HJ and Sorensen JT (2001). An economic model to calculate farm-specific losses due to bovine respiratory disease in dairy heifer. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 51:75-94. 

Van der fels- Klerx HJ, Horst HS and Dijikhuizen AA (2000). Risk factors for bovine respiratory disease in dairy young stock in the Netherlands: The perception of experts. Livestock Production Science 66(1):35-46.

Verschooten F, Oyaert W and Drubbel R (1974). Radiographic diagnosis of lung diseases in cattle. Veterinary Radiology 15(I):49-59.

Verma BK, Mahajan NK, Mali G and Dhiya JP (2004). An epidemiological study on bovine haemorrhagic septicemia in Haryana. Indian Veterinary Journal of Animal Research 38(1):14-19.

Wadhwa D, Wadhwa, DR, Kumari Meena and Katoch (2006) Therapeutic efficacy of enrofloxacin (Quintas) in neonatal calf pneumonia. Intas Polivet 7:54-55.

6

6-Title: Alteration in the hemato-biochemical profile of mastitis affected lactating dairy cattle

Authors: Zul I Huma, Neelesh Sharma, Touqeer Ahmed, Savleen Kour and AK Pathak

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):33-36.

 

How to cite this manuscript: Huma Zul I, Sharma Neelesh, Ahmed Touqeer, Kour Savleen and Pathak AK (2020). Alteration in the hemato-biochemical profile of mastitis affected lactating dairy cattle. Ruminant Science 9(1):33-36.

Abstract

The present investigation was conducted on 48 lactating dairy cattle to assess the alteration in blood haemato-biochemical profile in mastitis. These animals were further divided into control, subclinical mastitis and clinical mastitis groups of 16 animals each. It was observed that total leukocyte count (TLC), particularly neutrophil counts, were increased significantly. Significant changes were also noticed in the serum total protein, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride which increased significantly (p<0.05) in clinical cases over the control healthy animals. Thus, the degree of alteration in hemato-biochemical parameters can be helpful to assess the severity of the infection in mastitis cows.

References

Das Gunjan, Lalnunpuia C, Sarma K, Behera SK, Dutta TK and Bandyopadhyay Samiran (2015). Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus associated sub-clinical mastitis in crossbred cows in Mizoram. Ruminant Science 4(2):167-170.

Diwakar, Akriti, Choudhary Sunita, Meena Dhirendra, Bhati Taruna and Kataria AK (2019). Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of some Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk from goats with clinical mastitis. Ruminant Science 8(1):19-22.

Ghaffar A, Hussain R, Abbas G, Ali MH, Ahmed H, Nawaz J, Choudhary IR, Haneef J and Khan S (2017). Arsenic and copper sulfate in combination causes testicular and serum biochemical changes in White Leghorn cockerels. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 37(4):375-380.

Jain J, Karnani M, Khan A and Sharma S (2013). Comparative investigation of various biochemical parameters of cattle suffering from mastitis in semi arid Rajasthan. Journal of Immunology and Immunopathology 15(1):137.

Katsoulos PD, Christodoulopoulos GMA, Karatzia MA, Pourliotis K and Kritas SK (2010). The role of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase in the diagnosis of subclinical intramammary infections in dairy sheep and goats. Journal of Dairy Research 77:107-111.

Mosallam TE, Ahmed SYS, Ahmed AR and Alaam HA (2006). Clinicopathological studies on mastitis in dairy buffalo and cattle. Doctoral dissertation, MSc thesis submitted to Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Nirmali WKR, Priyabhashana AHL, Bandara AMS and Magamage MPS (2018). Assessment of milk quality of upcountry dairy farm in Sri Lanka. Ruminant Science 7(1):1-4.

Orellano MS, Isaac P, Breser ML, Bohl LP, Conesa A, Falcone RD and Porporatto C (2019). Chitosan nanoparticles enhance the antibacterial activity of the native polymer against bovine mastitis pathogens. Carbohydrate Polymers 213:1-9.

Qayyum A, Khan JA, Hussain R, Ahmad TI, Zahoor I, Ahmad M, Awais M, Ahmed N, Ahmad Z and Mubeen M (2018). Correlations of blood serum and milk biochemical profiles with subclinical mastitis in Cholistani cattle. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 55(4):959-964.

Raorane Abhay, Chothe Shubhadha, Dubal ZB, Barbuddhe SB, Karunakaran M, Doijad Swapnil, Pathak Ajay, Poharkar Krupali and Singh NP (2013). Antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis in Goa. Ruminant Science 2(2):139-144.

Sarvesha K, Satyanarayana ML, Narayanaswamy HD, Rao S, Yathiraj S, Isloor S, Mukartal SY, Srikanth M, Anuradha ME and Kamal H (2016). Effect of subclinical and clinical mastitis on hemato-biochemical profile and milk leukocyte count in indigenous cows. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 16(3):5829-5834.

Singh Pawanjit, Nigam Rajesh, Kumar Amit and Pandey Vijay (2018). Isolation and molecular characterization of pathogens associated with mastitis in Sahiwal cows. Ruminant Science 7(1):43-46.

Singh R, Bhardwaj RK, Azad MS and Beigh SA (2014). Effect of mastitis on haemato-biochemical and plasma mineral profile in crossbred cattle. Indian Journal of Animal Research 48:63-66.

Sunita, Diwakar and Kataria AK (2017). Antibiotic resistance pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk of cattle with clinical mastitis. Ruminant Science 6(2):319-322.

Zaki MS, El-Battrawy N and Mostafa SO (2010). Some biochemical studies on Friesian suffering from subclinical mastitis. Nature and Science 8(4):143-146.

7

7-Title: Enriching of camel milk composition and fatty acid profile by supplementation of flaxseed in the dromedary camel diet

Authors: Tahereh Mohammadabadi and Abdul Raziq Kakar

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):37-39.

 

How to cite this manuscript: Mohammadabadi Tahereh and Kakar Abdul Raziq (2020). Enriching of camel milk composition and fatty acid profile by supplementation of flaxseed in the dromedary camel diet. Ruminant Science 9(1):37-39.

Abstract

Present study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementing heated flaxseed on the milk production, composition and fatty acid profiles of dairy camels. Eight dromedary lactating camels with an average body weight of 420±26 kg assigned to 2 groups. Treatments were included control; grazing without flaxseed and experimental treatment with 100-250 g flaxseed per day for a weekly gradual adaption in a one month study. The camels had access to forage in the desert and at all fed with concentrate mixture. Milk production was recorded, and milk composition and fatty acid profiles were determined. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design. The result revealed flaxseeds supplementation increased (P<0.05) milk production of the camels as compared to the control (6.5 and 4.1 litre/day, respectively). Supplementation of flaxseed increased milk fat percentage (4.2 versus 3.7%) and decreased milk lactose (4.1 versus 4.35%) as compared to the control (P<0.05). But milk protein and ash were not different between treatments (P>0.05). Using supplemental flaxseeds in camels diet decreased saturated fatty acids and increased unsaturated fatty acids such as C18 and CLA (P<0.05). The value for C18:3 were 0.97 and 1.51% for control and flaxseed treatment, respectively. The current result showed that supplementation of heated flaxseed gradually at the rate of by 100-250 g/day in weekly interval to dromedary dairy camels’ increased milk production and percentage of unsaturated fatty acids with decreased saturated fatty acids composition of milk, which could be able to influence the heart health. Hence, it is recommended that supplementation of 100-250 g flaxseed in dromedary camels’ diet for increasing of omega-3 and improves the milk quality toward health aims.

References

Abughazaleh AA and Holmes LD (2007). Diet supplementation with fish oil and sunflower oil to increase conjugated linoleic acid levels in milk fat of partially grazing dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 90:2897-2904.

Azeemi Tawheed Ali, Qureshi MS and Kadwal  MH (2014). Effect of protected fats on milk yield and ovarain activity in dairy cattle. Ruminant Science 3(2):185-188.

Beauchemin KA, Mcgin SM, Benchaar C and Holtshausem L (2009). Crushed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds in lactating dairy cow diets: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Journal of Dairy Science 92:2118-2127.

El-Sheikh AI (2018). Production systems, milk production and composition of Saudi camels: Review. Ruminant Science 7(2):165-167.

Glasser F, Ferlay A and Chilliard Y (2008). Oilseed lipid supplements and fatty acid composition of cow milk: A metaanalysis. Journal of Dairy Science 91:4687-4703.

Ichihara K and Fukubayashi Y (2010). Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-liquid chromatography. Journal of Lipid Research 5:635-640.

Koba K and Yanagita T (2014). Health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Obesity Research and Clinical Practice 8:E525–E532.

Norouzi M (2019). Effect of flaxseed processing on milk production and the combination of fatty acids in milk of Holstein cows. Applied Animal Science Research Journal 32:49-60.

Parodi PW (1997). Cow’s milk fat components as potential anti-carcinogenic agents. Journal of Nutrition 127:1055-1060.

Petit HV (2003). Digestion, milk production, milk composition, and blood composition of dairy cows fed formaldehyde treated flaxseed or sunflower seed. Journal of Dairy Science 86:2637-2646.

Petit HV, Germiquet C and Lebel D (2004). Effect of feeding whole unprocessed sunflower seeds and flaxseed on milk production, milk composition, and prostaglandin secretion in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87:3889-3898.

Salles MSV, Abreu LF, Junier LCR and Cesar MC (2019). Inclusion of Sunflower Oil in the Bovine Diet Improves Milk Nutritional Profile. Márcia S. V. Nutrients, 11, 481; doi:10.3390/nu11020481.

SAS (2002). SAS User2 s Guide: Statistics. Ver 9.0. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA956.

Saxena Navneet, Mohan Chander, Sreehari S, Sharma ML, Kumar Krishna, Mudgal Vishal and Lal D (2019). Effect of bypass fat supplementation on productive and reproductive performance in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Ruminant Science 8(2):177-180.

8

8-Title: Milk quality as affected by the source and the season in Khartoum state

Authors: MM Abdelaziz, HZ Rania and Mohamed T Ibrahim

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):41-44.

 

How to cite this manuscript: Abdelaziz MM, Rania HZ and Ibrahim Mohamed T (2020). Milk quality as affected by the source and the season in Khartoum state. Ruminant Science 9(1):41-44.

Abstract

Present study was performed to assess the effect of the source and season on some physicochemical and microbiological properties of cow’s raw milk. A total of 120 samples of cow’s milk were collected from different sources (40 samples from each dairy farms, collection centres and groceries) during the summer and autumn season. Samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis by Lactoskan. The fat, protein, lactose, total solids, pH, added water and total bacteria count (TBC) were estimated. A total of 48 swab samples were collected from different farms (24 samples from each milkers hands, and milk utensils) during the summer and autumn season and were subjected to total bacterial count. General linear model was used to estimate the effect of source and season. The protein, lactose and added water were significantly affected by the source of milk collection while the milk fat, protein, lactose, total solids and TBC were significantly affected by season. In addition, a significant interaction between source and season was obtained on milk fat, protein, lactose and total solids.

References

Afrah Babiker Elraih (2005). Microbial Load and Chemical Analysis of Cow Milk Traded in Khartoum State. Faculty of Agriculture Omdurman Islamic University.

Elvan Ozrenk and Sebnem Selcuk Inci (2008). The Effect of Seasonal Variation on the Composition of Cow Milk in Van Province. Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of YuzuncuYil, 65080, Van, Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Laboratories of Food Control, Van, Turkey.

Foley J, Buckley J and Murphy MF (1999). Commercial test in and product control in the dairy industry. University Collehe Cork, Ireland.

Fox PF and PLH McSweeney (1995). Dairy Chemistry and Biochemistry. Springer Science and Business Media, Kluwer Academic, Plenum Publishers and New York.

Kumar Vaibhav, Patel JS, Patel BR, Mevada VK and Raval AP (2012). Therapeutic efficacy of antimicrobial drugs in clinical mastitis of cross bred cattle. Ruminant Science 1(2):177-180.

Leila Nateghi, Morvarid Yousef iElham Zamani, Mohammad Gholamian and Mehran Mohammad Zadeh (2014). The effect of different seasons on the milk quality. Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Shahre-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahr- Qods and Iran.

Madushanka DNN, Padmakumara HMS, Kumarasinghe GDN, Sanjeewa MPK and Magamage MPS (2017). Effect of two different bedding systems on udder health management of dairy cows. Ruminant Science 6(1):1-6.

Metwally AMM, Dabiza NMA, El-Kholy WI and Sadek ZI (2011). The effect of boiling on milk microbial contents and quality. Journal of American Science 7:110-114.

Ministry of Investment in Sudan Opportunities-Livestock (2015). www.minv.gov.sd/en/index.php/posts/post/40.

Mohamed NNI and Elzubeir IEM ( 2007). Evaluation of the hygienic quality of market milk of Khartoum State (Sudan). International Journal of Dairy Sciences 2(1):33-4.

Nahla AH Elsheikh, Siham A Rahamtalla and Mohamed OM Abdalla (2015). Chemical composition of raw milk produced and distributed in Khartoum state, Sudan. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences 3:1.

Nirmali WKR, Priyabhashana AHL, Bandara AMS and Magamage MPS (2018). Assessment of milk quality of upcountry diary farm in Sri Lanka. Ruminant Science 7(1):1-4.

Pal RS, Kajla MP and Meel MS (2016). Economics of milk production of cows in Jaisalmer and Barmer districts of Rajasthan. Ruminant Science 5(2):191-192.

Ojha S, Pathak V, Goswami M, Bharti SK, Singh VP and Tanuja (2019). Comparison of quality and safety parameters of milk from Mathura city. Ruminant Science 8(1):55-60.

Singh Shivani, Singh Amit, Singh Sanjeev Kumar and Rashmi (2019). Critical analysis of consumer perception on dairy production in urban and peri-urban areas of Uttar Pradesh. Ruminant Science 8(2):243-246.

Sharma Ramakant (2008). Chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Milk and Milk Products. International Book Distributing Co, India.

Tasci F (2011). Microbiological and chemical properties of raw milk consumed. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advanced 10(5):635-641.

9

9-Title: Isolation and identification of bacteria in subclinical mastitis in cattle from Bikaner city

Authors: Savita, AP Singh, TC Nayak, A Chahar, R Yadav and JP Kachhawa

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):45-48.

 

How to cite this manuscript: Savita, Singh AP, Nayak TC, Chahar A, Yadav R and Kachhawa JP (2020). Isolation and identification of bacteria in subclinical mastitis in cattle from Bikaner city. Ruminant Science 9(1):45-48.

Abstract

Present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of commonly occurring subclinical mastitis in 100 cows from LRS, Rathi farm of the institute and individual holding in and around the Bikaner city were screened for subclinical mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent pathogen followed by Streptococcus agalactiae, E. coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus uberis and Bacillus cereus.

References

Barkema HW, Schukken YH and Zadoks RN (2006). Invited Review: The role of cow, pathogen, and treatment regimen in the therapeutic success of bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 89(6):1877–1895.

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Constable PD, Hinchcliff KW, Done SH and Grunberg W (2017). Veterinary Medicine. 11th Edn, St. Louis, Missouri 63043, p 1912.

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Das Gunjan, Lalnunpuia C, Sarma K, Behera SK, Dutta TK and Bandyopadhyay Samiran (2015). Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus associated sub-clinical mastitis in crossbred cows in Mizoram. Ruminant Science 4(2):167-170.

Datta S and Rangenkar A (2001). Subclinical mastitis in a Jersey herd. Indian Veterinary Journal 78:161-162.

De Visscher A, Piepers S, Haesebrouck F and De Vliegher S (2016). Intramammary infection with coagulase-negative Staphylococci at parturition: Species-specific prevalence, risk factors and effect on udder health. Journal of Dairy Science 99(8):6457–6469.

Diwakar, Akriti, Choudhary Sunita, Meena Dhirendra, Bhati Taruna and Kataria AK (2019). Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of some Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk from goats with clinical mastitis. Ruminant Science 8(1):19-22.

Dubal ZB, Rahman H, Pal P, Kumar A and Pradhan K (2010). Characterization and antimicrobial sensitivity of the pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis with special reference to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. Indian Journal of Animal Science 80(12):1163-1167.

Gao J, Barkema HW, Zhang L, Liu G, Deng Z, Cai L, Shan R, Zhang S, Zou J, Kastelic JP and Han B (2017). Incidence of clinical mastitis and distribution of pathogens on large Chinese dairy farms. Journal of Dairy Science 100(6):4797–4806.

Gianneechini R, Concha C, Rivero R, Delucci I and Lopez JM (2002). Occurrence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 43(4):221.

Guimaraes FF, Manzi MP, Joaquim SF, Richini-Pereira VB and Langoni H (2017). Outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated mastitis in a closed dairy herd. Journal of Dairy Science 100(1):726-730.

Jena B, Pagrut NK, Sahoo A and Ahmed A (2015). Subclinical bovine mastitis in rural, peri-urban and suburban regions of Jaipur district of Rajasthan.  Indian Journal of Animal Research 5:175-182.

Kumar Vaibhav, Patel JS, Patel BR, Mevada VK and Raval AP (2012). Therapeutic efficacy of antimicrobial drugs in clinical mastitis of cross bred cattle. Ruminant Science 1(2):177-180.

Langer Anil, Ahuja Anil and Bihani DK (2014). Diagnosis of mycotic mastitis in cow. Ruminant Science 3(2):235-236.

Marwaha S (2018). Therapeutic studies of Piper nigrum in subclinical mastitis in cattle. MVSc thesis submitted to RAJUVAS, Bikaner, Rajasthan.

Olmsted SB and Norcross NL (1992). Effect of specific antibody on adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to bovine mammary epithelium cells. Infection and Immunity 60:249-256.

Parmar VL, Prasad Amit, Patel JS, Dodiya PG, Javia BB and Mathpati BS (2015). Therapeutic management of clinical mastitis caused by Pseudomonas SPP with special reference to homeopathy medicine in Jafarabadi buffalo-A case study. Ruminant Science 4(2):245-246.

Prabhakar SK, Singh KB, Nauriyal DC and Sidhu SS (1990). Subclinical mastitis in cattle. Indian Veterinary Journal 67:98-102.

Raguvaran R, Mondal DB, Jithin MV, Kumar Bipin and Sivakumar M (2016). Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in a nondescript goat Ruminant Science 5(2):291-292.

Raorane Abhay, Chothe Shubhadha, Dubal ZB, Barbuddhe SB, Karunakaran M, Doijad Swapnil, Pathak Ajay, Poharkar Krupali and Singh NP (2013). Antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis in Goa. Ruminant Science 2(2):139-144.

Riffon R, Sayasith K, Khalil H, Dubreuil P, Drolet M and Lagace J (2001). Development of a rapid and sensitive test for identification of major pathogens in bovine mastitis by PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39(7):2584-2589.

Schalm OW, Carrol JE and Jain NC (1971). Bovine Mastitis. 1st Edn, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA., pp 98-101.

Sharma A, Singh R, Beigh SA and Bhardwaj RK (2012). Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in crossbreed cattle from Jammu region. Veterinary Practitioner 13(2):356-357.

Shukla SK, Dixit VP, Thalpliyal DC and Kumar A (1998). Bacteriological studies of mastitis in dairy cows. Indian Veterinary Medical Journal 22:261-264.

Singh Pawanjit, Nigam Rajesh, Kumar Amit and Pandey Vijay (2018). Isolation and molecular characterization of pathogens associated with mastitis in Sahiwal cows. Ruminant Science 7(1):43-46.

Sunita, Diwakar and Kataria AK (2017). Antibiotic resistance pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk of cattle with clinical mastitis. Ruminant Science 6(2):319-322.

Workineh S, Bayleyegn M, Mekonnen H and Potgieter LND (2002). Prevalence and aetiology of mastitis in cows from two major Ethiopian dairies. Tropical Animal Health and Production 34(1):19-25.

Zadoks RN and Fitzpatrik JL (2009). Changing trends in mastitis. Irish Veterinary Journal 62:59-72.

10

10-Title: Assessment of comparative efficacy of drugs against benzimidazole resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of goats

Authors: Kusum Lata, G Das, NK Kumbhakar and S Nath

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):49-54.

How to cite this manuscript: Lata Kusum, Das G, Kumbhakar NK and Nath S (2020). Assessment of comparative efficacy of drugs against benzimidazole resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. Ruminant Science 9(1):49-54.

Abstract

The present investigation was undertaken to study the status of Benzimidazole (BZ) resistance in caprine nematodes of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh and to study the efficacy of Fenbendazole (FBZ) with Piperonyl Butoxide (PBT) and Methimazole (MTH) against caprine GI nematodes. Prevalence of BZ resistance, detected by in-vivo faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), revealed goats reared in farm condition were resistance as compared to the field. In-vitro egg hatch assay (EHA) also revealed resistance in strongyles of the farm as compared to field conditions. Log probit analysis with ED50 value of 0.149-0.238 µg TBZ/ml in farm and 0.003 – 0.053 µg TBZ/ml in the field, confirmed the existence of BZ resistant nematodes in farm conditions. Haemonchus contortus was the dominant nematode exhibiting resistance to BZ treatment followed by Trichostrongylus sp. and Strongyloides sp.

In order to study the comparative efficacy, the farm goats showing resistance to BZ anthelminthic were treated with FBZ+PBT @ 7.5 mg/kg and 63 mg/kg b.wt. and FBZ+MTH@ 7.5 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg b.wt., respectively. The rates of reduction were higher for FBZ+PBT treated goats with 98.5% FECR as compared to FBZ+MTH and only FBZ treated goats with 65.60% and 80.60% FECR, respectively indicated high efficacy of FBZ+PBT combination against resistant GI nematode in comparison to FBZ treatment. Results of in vitro EHA corroborating with that of FECRT by showing high efficacy of FBZ+PBT combination. To conclude, the prevalence of BZ resistance was detected against caprine GI nematodes in farm conditions and can be successfully treated by a combination of Fenbendazole and Piperonyl Butoxide.

References

Assis LM, Bevilaqua CML, Morais SM, Vieira LS, Costa CTS and Souza JAL (2003). Ovicidal and larvicidal activity in vitro of Spigelia anthelmia Linn extracts on Haemonchus contortus. Veterinary Parasitology 117:43-49.

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Das G, Dixit AK, Nath S, Agrawal V and Dongre S (2015). Levamisole and fenbendazole resistance among gastrointestinal nematodes in goats at Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 29:98-102.

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Dixit AK (2016). Detection of benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus of goats. PhD thesis submitted to NDVSU, Jabalpur.

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26

26-Title: Farmers’ valuation of attributes associated with animal healthcare services in Uttar Pradesh (India): Application of conjoint analysis

Authors: D Bardhan, Sanjay Kumar and Rishi Kumar Singh

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):125-130.

 

How to cite this manuscript: Bardhan D, Kumar Sanjay and Singh Rishi Kumar (2020). Farmers’ valuation of attributes associated with animal healthcare services in Uttar Pradesh (India): Application of conjoint analysis. Ruminant Science 9(1):125-130.

Abstract

The present study has analyzed perceptions of livestock farmers towards the provision of animal healthcare services (AHS) in terms of providing empirical estimates of farmers’ valuation of different attributes associated with AHS. The study was conducted among 1304 households from all 9 agro-climatic regions of Uttar Pradesh state of India. Using multivariate data analytical techniques, households were categorized into poor (48%), medium (36.5%) and rich (15%) wealth categories. The analytical procedure of conjoint analysis was used to know quantitative estimates of farmers’ relative valuation of different AHS attributes. Respondents’ ratings of different AHS providers on different attributes revealed no significant differences in the mean ratings given to attributes such as proximity, quality and affordability. Also, there were no significant differences in the mean ratings for each attribute for a particular AHS provider across different wealth categories. The only pattern that emerged was lower score given to ‘proximity’ as compared to ‘affordability and ‘quality’ across different wealth status categories and various AHS providers, thus indicating that the real issue in accessing AHS is proximity, i.e. easy access to AHS at the time of need. Application of conjoint analysis to assess farmers’ relative valuation of different AHS attributes revealed  ‘place of service’ as the most important attribute for all categories of respondents, closely followed by ‘supply of medicines by service providers’ and ‘type of service provider’.

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Bardhan D, Kumar Sanjay and Singh Rishi Kumar (2018). Delivery of livestock healthcare services and scope for its improvement: Evidence from Uttar Pradesh state of India. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 88(11):1320-1325.

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Dhamale Madhuri, Ravikumar RK, Ksheersagar Vivek Hindurao and Kumar Vipin (2017). Social construction of technology: An illustrative model for scaling up experimental wisdom of community in livestock welfare. Ruminant Science 6(1):119-123.

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Katheria Dharmendra, Gangwar LS, Rashmi and Kumar Amit (2016). Prospects and constraint faced by small holder dairy farmers and animal health service provider in controlling mastitis. Ruminant Science 5(1):51-54.

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11

11-Title: Detection of Trypanosoma evansi in cross breed cattle of North Gujarat

Authors: JG Patel, SH Raval, RS Parmar, SS Patel, RL Patel, BJ Patel and DV Joshi

Source: Ruminant Science (2020)-9(1):55-58.

 

How to cite this manuscript: Patel JG, Raval SH, Parmar RS, Patel SS, Patel RL, Patel BJ and Joshi DV (2020). Detection of Trypanosoma evansi in cross breed cattle of North Gujarat. Ruminant Science 9(1):55-58.

Abstract

Present study was carried out on 997 cross breed cattle with recurrent fever, muscular weakness, anaemia and loss of appetite. Out of 997 samples, 116 were found anaemic (Hb<8.5) through haematological examination. Blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on 116 blood samples to detect trypanosoma. Examination of blood well as buffy coat smear(s) revealed that only 11 (9.48%) were found positive for Trypanosoma, while 37 (31.90%) out of 116 animals were found positive in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Hence, PCR is considered the most suitable diagnostic and confirmatory test for early diagnosis of trypanosomosis infection and consequently controlling programs.

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Singla LD, Juyal PD and Sharma NS (2010). Immune responses to haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) vaccination in Trypanosoma evansi infected buffalo-calves. Tropical Animal Health and Production 42:589-595.

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